Spring mushroom cultivation techniques

I. Overview The mushrooms are Agaricus bisporus, which is delicious and nutritious. It contains high protein, low fat, multiple vitamins, cellulose, sugar and calcium, phosphorus, iron, etc. The contained protein contains 18 amino acids, of which 8 The amino acids are essential amino acids in the human body. Therefore, mushrooms are people's daily life.
Mushrooms account for the largest proportion of cultivated mushrooms in the world. The artificial cultivation of mushrooms has developed rapidly. China is a mushroom country in the world and mushroom production ranks second in the world. Mushroom production ranks first in the world.
Since the reform and opening up, along with the development of the market economy, planting, breeding, and bacterial properties (especially the mushroom industry) are the three major pillars of agriculture, and mushroom industry in particular has received increasing attention from leaders at all levels and the general public. It is one of the major projects for increasing foreign exchange and helping rural areas get rid of poverty and become rich.

Second, the requirements of mushrooms on the external environment The mushrooms are aerobic saprophytic bacteria, in the entire growth process requires a rich nutrition, the appropriate temperature, adequate moisture, fresh air, soil and pH (PH5.0-8.0). The light does not need to be in the entire mushroom production development process.

3. Setting and disinfection of mushroom house (mushroom shed) Choose topography and cool, drainage is easy, and water is sufficient. Use the winter free field after the harvest of late rice to grow mushrooms in the middle shed (or use the old house that is not inhabited to build a mushroom). Generally one square meter of ground can grow 0.6 square meters (the rest is channel) mushrooms. If you use a two-story rack, it will be 20.6 square meters = 1.20 square meters, and a three-story rack will be 1.80 square meters. The distance between the ground floor and the bottom floor is preferably 10-20 cm above the ground, and the distance between the above floors is 60 cm. It is advisable to reach the width of the bed with a width of 50-60 cm. The width of the boring bed is usually 0.8-0.9 meters. The width of the two-channel trampoline is 1.4-1.5 meters. The distance between the two ends of the channel is 3040 cm. 2-3 windows.
Disinfection: After the mushrooms and mushroom sheds have been racked up, they are generally used for insecticide and sterilization before feeding.
Insecticide: Spray with 0.4-0.5% dichlorvos or 2% dicofol.
Sterilization: Spray with 2-3% bleach or lime water, spray with 0.2% carbendazim or thiophanate, or spray with 2% formaldehyde.

Fourth, the production of low-lying sheds in open areas of mushrooms is easy to drain, and there are many ways to build sheds using bamboo, wood and bamboo in the fields with sufficient water supply.
1, can take 2.4 meters wide, 10 meters long ring mushroom shed, the height of the number of layers of the mushroom bed may be, usually a bed is 1 meter high, 1.7 meters for two-bed, 2.2 meters for three-bed In the middle, there is a 0.6-meter-wide passageway, with a 0.9-meter-wide bed on both sides.
2. Take a 2.2-meter-high, 4.2-meter-wide, 10-meter-long curved floor shed, and a 1.5-meter-wide bed shed in the middle of the shed. Each side of the bed is 0.6 meters wide and the sides of the two passages are each 0.8 meters. Wide bed curtains. Such a plane has three beds (0.8 meters wide, 1.5 meters wide, 0.8 meters wide) and the middle three channels are 0.6 meters. 2.2 meters high for three shelves, the first floor is 10-20 cm above the ground. The distance between the second layer and the first layer is 0.6 meters, and the distance between the third layer and the second layer is 0.6 meters.
Digging trenches: Dig 10-15 cm deep drainage ditches in the middle two channels and fill the beds with the excavated soil. The outer trench was 5 cm deeper than the inner trench, and the excavated soil pressed the plastic film on the ground. In order to facilitate drainage, a deep ditch should be dug between the shed and the shed.

Fifth, the mushroom culture material ingredients and methods of composting (A) mushrooms are aerobic saprophytic fungi, its growth of nutrition from the culture materials, the absorption of culture materials is related to the success or failure of mushroom cultivation and the level of yield . Good culture materials must have rich nutrition and energy. Such as protein, vitamins, cellulose, lignin and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other elements. Its physical properties should be loose, elastic, brownish or brown in color, PH 7.5 in pH, actinomycete, fiber-decomposing bacteria and no pests.
There are many kinds of culture materials, but the source of the combination of the region is relatively wide, and the lowest cost of good quality is straw, cow dung, pig manure, horse dung and so on. The raw materials must be freshly dried and stored. Can not rot, moldy. According to the C:N ratio of the culture material is 33:1 and the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content ratio is 4:1.2:3, the required ingredients are as follows (calculated on 100 square meters)
1, 3000 kg of dry straw.
2, dry cow dung (pig, dried horse manure) 2000 pounds.
3, superphosphate 80 kg.
4, gypsum powder 100 pounds or light calcium phosphate 50-60 pounds.
5, 50 kg of ammonium bicarbonate.
6, lime powder 60 kg.

(B) Secondary fermentation technology for secondary fermentation The secondary fermentation is divided into pre-fermentation, ie, heap-based fermentation, and post-fermentation, ie, humidified fermentation.
1, before the fermentation of technology and methods (the time before and after the National Day is better).
Pre-fermentation is to build a batch of fermentation in the open air. After the cow dung and rice straw are pre-wet in water, a pile can be built. A heap of one hundred square meters of 2.3-2.5 meters wide, 1.6 meters high and 10 meters long should be built.
When building a heap, first lay a layer of straw 2.3 to 2.5 meters wide and 15 to 20 centimeters high (the length is determined by the number of squares to be planted, ie, 100 square meters is 10 meters long) and then lay a layer of 3 cm thick. The cow dung is covered with a layer of straw, and a layer of cow dung is laid on the grass so that it is suitable for circular stacking up to a height of 1.6 meters. The top of the pile is bowed, and when the second layer of straw is piled, the water is sprayed and sprayed. Irrigation should be sprayed at a lower level, and the more the upper layer should be sprayed, the better it is to have water overflow around. After the third and fourth stacks are piled up, the temperature will rise to 70°C. The first pile will be turned on the fifth day, the second pile will be turned on the 11th day, and the third pile will be turned on the 15th day.
Turning the pile: when the pile is turned, the width of the pile is reduced by 20 cm from the width of the original pile. It is required that the material be shaken loosely, and the upper part be turned down and turned inside out. Turn over the first heap to fill the water (water overflowing around the bottom layer) and spread chemical fertilizer (ammonium bicarbonate, superphosphate, peanut meal) on top of each other. The second layer of the stack should be filled with gypsum powder, if the material is dry to add the right amount of water. For the third time, the material can be turned into a breathable bed with a bamboo bottom. Turn over the third heap to layer lime powder.
2, after fermentation. There are two kinds of post-fermentation: one is the post-fermentation with a fixed bed frame in mushroom house. The second is open-air fermentation.
After the fixed post-fermentation operation method, the pre-fermented culture material (the third day after the third turnover) was promptly moved to a fixed bed frame and shaken and loosely laid, usually 20 cm high. Finish sealing all doors and windows. Then you can warm the fermentation and put a thermometer at 100°C.
The open-air post-fermentation method is as follows: Use a bamboo-brick-brick stone floor to make a breathable bed 2 meters wide and 1.6 meters wide, with a bed height of 20 centimeters high, and leave two 20 centimeter-wide intake air passages on the bed and ground. between. Then turn the culture material from the third batch of the pre-fermentation to the air-breathing bed in the same way as the third pile, and set up a bamboo pole at 1.5 meters from the center of the pile. Turn over the heap and remove the bamboo rod as a vent. The stack height is 1.1 meters, unlimited length (usually the same length as the original stack), turned to the last layer to make it slightly bowed. The third day was covered with a layer of straw (covered on the top of the pile) and arched with bamboo arches, covering the stack 0.7 meters apart. Above and around a bow tied tightly with a string of plastic film on the top of the soil, do not let the film fly after the vapor, the ground with a thin sand or fine soil to compact the plastic film. In this way, steam heating can begin. (To put a thermometer at 100 °C 1 view temperature).
Warming: Fifty barrels of iron filled with inlet and exhaust pipes are used to horizontally pot. Burn the fire under the bucket (coal or firewood) and connect the exhaust pipe with a high-temperature resistant plastic steam pipe. The other end of the steam pipe extends into the channel of the mushroom shed (room) or the intake air channel under the open air bed. When the water in the drum boils, the steam enters the mushroom shed in large quantities, and the temperature of the culture material in the shed gradually increases. When the temperature reached 60°C, it was maintained for 8 hours, and then the exhaust gas was cooled to 50-52°C for 60 hours. When exhausting, pay attention to the smell of the exhausted gas. If there is ammonia or other odors, the exhaust time will be extended until the exhaust gas is odorless.
The advantage of post-fermentation is that the mushroom shed (family), mushroom bed frame and culture material are sterilized and insecticided once again to cultivate more actinomycetes, humic fungi and fiber-decomposing bacteria that are beneficial to mushroom growth. For mushroom production to create a good environment without bacteria, no pests, create conditions for mushroom growth and development, lay a good foundation for mushroom production.

Sixth, sowing and sowing to the management of pre-recycling culture materials after the completion of fermentation, to open the window ventilation, check the moisture content of the culture material is moderate (with hand-strength culture material without water lines do not drip), inspection room ( Whether there is ammonia in the shed), if ammonia smells strong, remove it immediately. The method is as follows: Turn over and level the 1% formaldehyde solution and increase ventilation.
If the mushroom shed (room) does not have ammonia odor and the water content is moderate, the temperature of the material can be sowed at 29°C. (If the material temperature is higher than 29°C, seeding will burn the bacteria. If the temperature is lower than 29°C, the temperature will be lower. The slower the speed). Sowing methods include sowing, slashing, spreading and mixed sowing. We choose to broadcast. The method is to use a bottle of wheat germ to spread evenly on the leveling material surface per square metre. Spread a bed and shake the material gently so that part of the wheat material will fall into the material and part will remain on the material surface (this way Become a mixed broadcast.) Then gently level the material (note that the humidity of the bed can not be beaten). After sowing, seal the doors and windows and insert the thermometer into the middle layer to check the material temperature. The next day we will enter the shed (room) for inspection. If the material temperature is not higher than 28°C, the temperature of the shed is 21-26°C, the relative humidity of the air is 75-80%, and the mycelium of germination is complete after 2-3 days of sowing. , and began to plant food. At this time, the occurrence of germs is inhibited and the windows are ventilated in the morning or at night. (If the material temperature after sowing is higher than 29°C, the doors and windows must be opened to exhaust. If the bacteria is not germinated on the third day after sowing, it may be the cause of the death and the species should be immediately reseeded.) 5-8 days after sowing, when the hyphae has been eaten into the feed, Xiao Zhu can be used to play ramps on the trampoline and move small, the distance is 15-20 cm. Increase the air in the material, and increase the ventilation time, promote the mycelial growth in the material more quickly and horizontally. When the mycelium grows to more than half of the culture material, it is necessary to increase ventilation, and pay attention to checking and preventing pests and diseases. The most important method of prevention is to enhance ventilation, reduce the moisture content of the culture material and the relative humidity of the air in the mushroom house.

The common diseases, insects, and control methods are now described as follows:
1. Mucor, white mold, and trichoderma, spotted with chlorine dioxide (neoplasm disinfectant) or spotted with 0.3% thiophanase. (The mold spray concentration is 0.1%.)
2. Penicillium, Aspergillus flavus, black mold can be coated with 3% carbendazim or Topogazine.
3, Chaetomium, Sclerotinia with 300 times Bordeaux mixture sprayed into the ward.
Insect pests:
Bacterial flies (ie fly-like but small individuals), aphids (Red spiders) can be sprayed with a 0.1% citricidal spray or an enemy spray.

VII. Complex soils and soils - The management of fruit body formation (before mushroom harvesting).
Agaricus bisporus: No soil will not grow mushrooms. When the mycelium grows to the bottom of the bed, it can be reconstituted. The earth used for soil reconstitution shall be selected from garden soil or field soil with good neutrality (PH5.5-7.5) and good air permeability. Each square meter of mushroom bed needs to use 2-2.5 square meters of soil. 70 kg of lime powder, 5 tons of ash, broken and evenly smashed and added 4 kg of formaldehyde to make a square or garden shape with a height of 0.7 m. The circumference of the bowl is 20-25 cm above the surface of the bowl and covered with a plastic film. 24 -48 hours. (If the soil has soil pests, add 0.3% of dichlorvos). Fill enough water (pay attention to the fact that you can't turn the soil when it is watering, let the water absorb completely slowly to the bottom and it will be wet).
In addition, flatten the bed of the mushroom bed and spray 1% carbendazim or thiophanate water once. The next day, spray lime PH8 water can be reconstituted soil (spray volume is generally 1-2 kg / square meter, the material dry more wet spray less spray).
Complex soil: Fill the soil with enough water (掐合, 放会松) evenly on the surface of the material for a thickness of 2-2.5 cm, after the hand or bamboo, wood scraping. After the leveling, there must be no exposure (seeing). The more uniform the thickness of the soil, the better. Recover the soil and seal the doors and windows. If the weather is hot, stay in the top half of the window. The remaining soil of the complex soil is covered with a film and ready for use.
After the soil is reconstituted, inspections are conducted once a day to check the pests and diseases. The soil of each bed is checked for dryness and humidity. If the top layer is the wettest, the ventilation of the upper window must be strengthened, and the humidity of the beds should be the same. Generally there is a fluffy mycelium crawling in 3 days. When the mycelium grows on top of the topsoil, it must be ventilated and filled with a thin layer of soil (using the soil left on the reconstituted soil). At this time, the villous mycelium has become thicker, becoming linear mycelia and intertwined. At the intertwining site, the knot is swollen into a spherical white spot. This is the mushroom fruiting body (ie, mushroom bud). When the mushroom bud grows into soybeans, the temperature in the mushroom shed is between 12-18°C, and a heavier mushroom water can be sprayed. After spraying the mushroom water, mushroom buds grow quickly. After several days, the mushroom on the bed soil grows more and more, and ventilation and moisturizing work (spray) should be done.
Ventilation, should do the following five points:
1, look at the weather, the weather is humid, scraping the south wind, pass the north wind, dry weather less pass.
2, look at the temperature: 12-18 °C suitable temperature multi-pass, not suitable temperature to pass.
3, mushroom shed smell, smell more ventilation.
4, see the soil wet and dry relative humidity level, soil moisture, air humidity and more ventilation.
5, see mushrooms more yellow, white and shiny less pass.
Water spray: Water spray is the key to the production of mushrooms. A look at the species, grape-shaped multi-spray; less air-type spray; second look at the climate, sunny, northerly wind and dry weather, multi-spray; cloudy days and less spray; 3 look at the temperature, suitable temperature at 12-18 °C more than spray , high temperature and low temperature spray; four to see the number of mushrooms on the bed surface, size, more than large-scale mushroom and more spray, otherwise less spray; five to see the thickness of soil, wet and dry, thick soil, dry and more spray, otherwise less Spray; six to see the strength of mycelium. Strong mycelium spray, weak spray less; seven see mushroom shed (room) good or bad moisturizing performance, poor moisturizing performance of multiple spray. Good little spray; eight to see the size of the mushroom bed holding water, holding more water poorly spray, holding water and spraying. Eight bogey is a bogey to close doors and windows, spraying water or water drops before closing the window. Second bogey high temperature spray (20 °C above), three bogey before the advent of cold air spray heavy water. Four bogey spray high concentrations of liquid medicine and fertilizer. 5. Avoid heavy spray when it rains. Six bogey one-time spray heavy water. Seven bogey on heavy mycelium spray heavy water. Eight bogey mushrooms before the spray (should be sprayed before the end of 4 hours).
At the same time, each time the water is sprayed, it must be carefully checked again. It is marked too dry and wet at the same time. The next time it is sprayed more or less, it will not be sprayed.
Turning to the tide: 2 days before picking up a batch of mushrooms, in order to promote the early growth of the next mushroom, the spray should be sprayed with good tide. The first three surges can be sprayed with 1 to 3 meters of PH8 lime water. The amount of lime water (PH8-8.5) with a rotating tide of 1-2 catties per square meter. After each tide, when the buds grow up to the size of the soybeans, they spray the mushroom water once again (the first three tides are more than sprayed, and the latter is less sprayed).

8. Mushroom harvesting When the mushroom cap of the mushroom fruiting body grows to 3-4 cm in diameter (before the end of the parachute) it can be harvested. The method of picking mushrooms is as follows:
1, before the mining three tide mushroom with the thumb, index finger, middle finger three fingers light mushroom cover, the mushrooms can be raised after the rotation. After the four tides, the mushrooms are covered with large, fresh, medium, and three-finger mushrooms. When the mushrooms are harvested, use large, fresh, medium, and medium fingered oyster mushrooms to cover the left and right sides of the mushroom and move them upwards to lift up some of the root zone mycelium to break up the loosening mycelium of the soil layer, promote the growth of new mycelium, and increase the layer of earth material. Oxygen, increase the mushroom.
2, the method of mushroom cultivation: mushroom mushroom clusters dense in one place, as many as ten stars, dozens of stars, ranging from three to five. Therefore, the mushroom must be careful, use the left hand to gently hold the mushroom grove, the right hand holding a knife to cut the mushroom handle to be cut, lift, if a mushroom size inconsistent to adopt large and small, if the size can be consistent When the length of the mushroom is 3-4 cm, use a big, fresh, medium finger to hold the mushroom stalk and shake it and shake it.

In short, the following work should be done when picking mushrooms:
(1) To ensure a steady harvest: First-generation tidal mushrooms, low temperature, low parts of the plant (mushroom knots at lower levels), thick mushroom stalks, thick shank, and stability.
(2) To harvest: The mushroom in the tidal wave is a peak of mushroom production. If there are many mushrooms, the temperature should be high 2-3 times a day.
(3) To be greedy: tidal tail mushroom, weak growth mushroom, mushroom with high position of live parts, thin cover, and stalked mushrooms must be greedy. After harvesting, the mushroom is cut off with a small shank and mud, and sold as standard.

9. Disease prevention and control of mushroom pests Mushroom diseases and insect pests should be taken as a prevention-based approach.
Prevention should be done well for the disinfection, sterilization and insecticidal work of cultivating material, mushroom shed (house) mushroom bed, and covering soil. Prepare for post-fermentation (8 hours at 60°C, 60 hours at 50-52°C), and ventilate water sprays. This will greatly reduce pests and diseases.

Disease and Insect Living Environment and Control Methods:
Insect pests generally occur and spread rapidly in high-temperature and high-humidity environments. Common common pest control and treatment methods are described below:
Mucors: White gypsum, Trichoderma, if small in area or partially coated or rubbed with chlorine dioxide (pure mushroom disinfectant). The area is large with 0.15% thiophanate or carbendazim spray. (The next day after spraying, lime powder was thrown in the ward with a bill cloth, and a small amount of lime powder was dropped in the ward).
Penicillium, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger can be rubbed with 3% carbendazim or thiophanate.
Chaetomium, micro-sclerotia, sprayed into the ward with 300 times Bordeaux mixture.
Brown spot, brown rot, and rust spot were sprayed with 1.5% thiophanate or 1% lime water.
Insect pests: Aphids, fly flies and their larvae and their larvae can be sprayed with 0.1% methanoin or 0.2% dichlorvos. Or use an enemy kill spray. (A small bottle with 30 pounds of water), these pesticides should be selected when the bed mushroom is small, the temperature is slightly higher when the evening spray, spraying finished medicine should be ventilated.

Tenth, the large amount of nutrients in top-dressing mushroom culture materials is absorbed and utilized by mushroom hyphae of the first three tides, and the fourth tide mushroom will experience the decline of nutrient deficiencies, such as lack of mushrooms, small mushrooms, thin mushrooms, and slender elongated handles, The wilted mushroom buds are more than enough to enter a reasonable fertilizer. The methods are as follows:
1, the mushroom head cut mushroom head plus urine 5 pounds plus water spray boiled 15 minutes, cold water 10-12 times sprayed on the bed.
2, with glucose, sugar, bees or brown sugar are all line, dubbed a 1% concentration spray. (Do not spray above 16°C).
3, with 1 pound of soy beans, add water, filter and distribute water to 100 pounds of spray.
4, plant ash filter, the filter ash of the plant ash with water PH8-8.5 can be sprayed mushrooms.
5, 0.1% urea solution or compound fertilizer spray.
6, each square meter with vitamin B1, B6 and yeast tablets, calcium tablets and half tablets, powdered with water to dissolve and spray.
7, spray mushroom robust element, can also spray peptone

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