Tomato grafting control bacterial wilt

Tomato bacterial wilt (farmer's name "hairpin") is a very serious bacterial disease. The pathogenic bacteria are mainly transmitted through the soil and invade the vascular bundle of the diseased plants, blocking the conducting tissues and producing virus-inducing factors that poison the cells, causing the plants to die and die. The disease is highly contagious. The continuous planting of solanaceous crops and the adverse weather of high temperature and rainy weather can easily cause large-scale disease, leading to reduced production and even no harvest. It has become a chronic disease worldwide. At present, a large number of studies have been conducted in breeding at home and abroad, and a number of varieties with resistance to bacterial wilt have been selected and bred. However, the quality of these varieties, especially the commercial nature of fruits, is difficult to meet. There is no effective domestic and foreign chemical control. Pesticides are available. In order to solve this problem in production, the project was approved by the Science and Technology Commission of Guilin City in 1997, and the topic of “Application and Promotion of Tomato Grafting Technology” was issued. After years of research and demonstration and promotion, important technical achievements have been obtained. Technical appraisal, the results have reached the domestic advanced level.
1. Selection of Rootstocks and Scion Varieties The selection of rootstocks and scions must take into account the disease resistance of the rootstocks, the superiority of the scions, and the synchronicity between the affinity and the growth rate between the two.
1.1 Rootstocks: The red eggplant and the wild solanaceous plant can be selected. However, according to our observations, the disease-resistant varieties cultivated through hybridization have stronger resistance to the level of tomato bacterial wilt, and the growth potential is also superior to that of general stock materials. The "stock stock" and "root stock number two" promoted by the current research group can be used as the preferred varieties for grafted stock.
1.2 Scion: The scion should be based on the cultivation conditions and market demand, select the main cultivar with strong production adaptability. In recent years, the “Sapphire F101”, “Bai Li”, “Cuihong” and other varieties introduced from abroad have been gradually replaced. For many years, the use of "ruby" and other varieties, grafted cultivation, so that the advantages of these varieties have been fully brought into play.
2, sowing nursery
2.1 Seed treatment: buy seed with full seed grain and high germination rate, soak after soaking (4-5 hours in winter and spring, 2-3 hours in summer and autumn), and soak for 10-15 minutes with 75% chlorothalonil 800 times solution. Disinfect, wash and germinate at 25-30°C.
2.2 sowing method of seedlings: grafted tomato nursery should be 7-10 days ahead of normal nursery in order to facilitate timely colonization.
1 rootstock nursery: the use of nutrient cup seedlings or nursery nursery. That is, after the seedlings of rootstocks have emerged, when the seedlings have grown to 1-2 true leaves, the seedlings are selected to be transplanted into the 88cm or 1010cm nutrient cups in good weather, or transplanted into nursery beds at 1510 cm. It is necessary to strengthen the management of fertilizers and waters to cultivate medium-grown internodes and rough, disease-free strong seedlings.
2 Scion nursery: According to the different climatic conditions, it is appropriate to plant 5-7 days later than the rootstock, or sow when the rootstock seedlings are in a true leaf, the scions should be appropriately sowed, no longer transplanting seedlings, in winter this method should be used to nurse seedlings sowing. If the same method (nutrition cup or artificial plant, etc.) is used for seedling raising, rootstock and scion can be sown at the same time.
3, Grafting tomato grafting methods are mainly splicing, plugging and docking, production applications, although easy to survive by the pick, but the operation is more complex, common anvil rootstock, scion and easy to confuse. Plugs are small due to scion, easy to lose water, and grow slowly after receiving live. The seedlings are grafted with large seedlings, with fixed grafting clips, easy to operate, high survival rate, rapid growth and recovery, suitable for production and application, little training and guidance for farmers, and a survival rate of more than 90%. Each person can graft 600-800 strains per day. .
Grafting should be carried out at a temperature of 20-28°C in sunny weather or cloudy and windless weather. Dry heat, continuous rainy days and windy days are not suitable for grafting. Sunny days should work in dark conditions.
3.1 Grafting tools: blade, graft clip, scion disk, yarn (cotton) cloth, bow, agricultural plastic film, shading mesh.
3.2 splicing methods: 1 Grafting on 5-6 true leaves of rootstock. The rootstock seedlings were sprayed 2-3 days ahead of time and sprayed with high-efficiency pesticides. The footing water was sprayed half an hour in advance to remove the diseased seedlings, weak seedlings, and weeds. 2 When grafting, the rootstock should be cut at the base of leaving 2-3 leaves, and perpendicularly cut a 2-2.5 inch incision in the middle of the transverse stalk. Then, the scions should remain in the top 2-3 true leaves. Cut a knife, carefully insert the anvil incision, align it and clamp it with a clip.
3.3 Multiple bud grafting method: After the grafting of the main buds of the scions is completed by the above method, 1-2 stalks with one true leaf and about 5 é•¿ in length are grafted and grafted. . Can also be scion buds grow to 2-3 true leaves and then cut grafting, this method stocks to be sown in two batches, generally spaced 12-15 days. It can also be picked when the scion grows to 3-4 true leaves, all grafted with axillary buds.
4. Grafting seedling management The grafting seedling survival rate is high or low. In addition to the seedling quality and grafting operation quality, it is more important to manage the grafted seedlings later. To cover the 90% shading rate shade net along with the small arch shed, maintain a certain humidity and temperature. When the temperature in the shed exceeds 30°C and the relative humidity exceeds 95%, proper ventilation shall be provided. Each ventilation time should not be too long. As the number of days increases, the ventilation time increases accordingly. After 3-5 days, scattered light can be transmitted. After 5-7 days, depending on the weather and the healing condition of the interface, the grafting clips can be removed and the shading rate can be reduced. Gradually the transition to the complete withdrawal of the shed film and shading nets is to be carried out. After about 10 days, the normal seedling management is performed, and the rootstock buds are removed promptly. Missed live and diseased seedlings.
5. Grafting seedlings planting and field management Grafting seedlings should be planted, the interface should be well-integrated, healthy growth of healthy seedlings, the interface should be more than 10cm above the ground when planting, if the soil should also be buried to prevent the interface, to avoid scion re-rooted into the soil, Reduce disease prevention.
Grafting tomatoes mainly prevent soil-borne diseases such as bacterial wilt and blight. For diseases such as late blight, gray mold, bovine blight, and viral diseases, which mainly depend on air and insects, they should still be controlled in time according to conventional cultivation measures. In particular, diseases such as leaf diseases should be promptly controlled to maintain a high leaf area index, increase the efficiency of photosynthetic production, meet the demand for nutrients in the underground parts of the plants, and improve the comprehensive stress resistance and yield of the plants.
Pay attention to the management of fertilizer and water management: When too many results, insufficient light, easily lead to premature plant failure and resistance decline, it should also be timely sparsely fruiting and fruiting, maintaining a proper ratio of roots to crowns.
Grafting and cultivation should still pay attention to the application of comprehensive prevention and control measures such as crop rotation and cleanup of pastures to reduce the number of diseased and infested winter bases, and special attention should be paid to controlling the spread of devastating diseases such as ulcer disease.

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