Grape Diseases and Pest Integrated Control Technology

Grape pests and diseases are a natural disaster that directly affects the yield, quality and market supply of grapes. In recent years, due to the rapid development of grape production, the number of pests and diseases has also increased and the law of occurrence has become more complicated. Therefore, we must pay attention to pest control work. In the actual prevention and control process, broad-spectrum chemical pesticides are often used to produce resistance to pathogens and pests, killing natural enemies and polluting the environment. In particular, grapes are used for fresh food and there are serious problems in the use of chemical pesticides. There is an urgent need to implement a plant protection policy that focuses on prevention and comprehensive management, and combine grape pests and diseases. In comprehensive prevention and control, we must take agricultural control as the basis, and take measures to prevent local conditions, properly use chemical pesticides, biological control, and physical control measures to economically, safely, and effectively control pests and diseases so as to increase output, quality, and protect the environment and people. The purpose of health.
First, plant quarantine The best way to prevent pests and diseases is to prevent dangerous pathogens and pests from entering new areas that have not yet occurred. Plant quarantine is the main technical measure for prevention and spread of pest spread.
Seeds, seedlings, scions, seed strips, and agricultural products transferred between import, export, and domestic regions are quarantined on site or at the place of production, and materials containing pathogens and pests are found and processed before reaching the new area or before entering the new area. If an observation nursery is set up for isolation observation, it is forbidden to transport seeds, seedlings, scions, seed strips and agricultural products that have been infected or carry pathogens or pests from the affected area. Quarantine objects should be promptly extinguished. Through quarantine, the effective prevention or restriction of the spread and spread of dangerous pests has played a positive role in preventing the intrusion of plant pests and diseases that have not occurred anywhere. For example, grape phylloxera, American white moth and grape cancer are the main quarantine objects in China. So far, these dangerous pests and diseases have been well controlled and have not caused large-scale damage.
II. Agricultural Measures (1) Maintaining Orchard Cleanliness The clean and healthy orchard is the fundamental measure to eliminate grape pests and diseases. It is required to be carried out in each spring and autumn season, and the dead branches and branches cut by winter shears, the vines peeled off and old skins cleaned, and burned or buried in a concentrated manner to reduce the harm in the following year. When pests and diseases are discovered in the long season, the diseased branches, ears, grains, and leaves must also be carefully and promptly removed and destroyed immediately to prevent further spread.
(II) Improving the ventilation and light transmission conditions on the surface of the trellis The leaves on the trellis surface of the grapevine are too dense, the heads are left in too much, the ventilation and light transmission are poor, and pests and diseases are prone to occur. Therefore, it is necessary to tie the vine to pick up the heart in time and to eliminate the auxiliary tip to create good ventilation and light transmission conditions. Ears close to the ground can be properly hoisted with a rope to prevent pests and diseases.
(3) Strengthen water and fertilizer management Fertilization and irrigation must be determined according to the growth and development needs of fruit trees and the fertility of the soil. The application of organic fertilizer or inorganic compound fertilizer can increase excessive fruit fertilizer, lack of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, soil water or drought, and can promote the occurrence of diseases and insect pests; low-lying orchards, pay attention to waterlogging prevention, promote the normal growth of plant roots, is conducive to enhance Tree stress resistance.
(d) deep-turning and weeding in combination with deep basal fertilization, the soil surface pests and bacteria can be buried in the fertilizer trench to reduce the source of pests and diseases. And the earthworms, maggots and larvae in the soil near the roots of grape plants are dug out and concentrated to kill. The debris and weeds in the orchard are the places where diseases and pests pass through winter and multiply to reduce pests and diseases.
3. Selecting and breeding resistant varieties in the production of pest-resistant varieties is the most economical and effective method for pest control. It has long attracted people's attention. The varieties with strong resistance to insect pests or interspecific hybrids have obvious effects. In recent years, Kangtai, a grape variety cultivated in production, was selected from the natural budding of Kangbier. It not only can resist cold, but also has strong resistance to downy mildew and powdery mildew. In addition, the Kyoho group of European and American hybrids imported from Japan has strong anti-blackpox and anthracnose resistance and is very popular with growers. It has also been reported that the recent introduction of grape rootstocks resistant to phylloxera and nematodes from abroad, such as harmony, freedom, etc., through the cultivation of vegetative grafted grape seedlings, can achieve the purpose of preventing and treating grape root pests and diseases.
Fourth, biological control Biological control is an important part of comprehensive prevention and control. Including insect pests, bacteria and other aspects of bacteria. Its characteristics are the safety of fruit trees and humans and animals, do not pollute the environment, do not harm natural enemies and beneficial organisms, and have long-term control effects. At present, the application of agricultural anti-402 biological pesticides in grape production, smearing at the resection of cancer tumors, have a better control effect. Nongkang 120 is a new type of antibiotic discovered by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in recent years. Among them, 120A and 120BF can be used as an ideal biopharmaceutical for the control of grape powdery mildew, and it also has a good effect on grape black spot disease. In addition, there are many natural enemies in nature, the protection and use of natural enemies, and the prevention and control of pests in orchards is a biological control that cannot be ignored at present.
V. Physical control The method of killing or repelling pests by using fruit tree pathogens, the specific response and tolerance of pests to temperature, spectral sound, etc. Such as the production of virus-free grape seedlings cultivated, often using potential treatment methods to remove the virus. According to reports, seedlings can be removed from the stem pox disease at 30°C for more than one month. According to the characteristics of some insect pests that have phototaxis, black light traps are installed in orchards, which are more commonly used and have better control effects. However, the number of false enemies should be reduced as much as possible. Can also capture, kill, method is simple, cost-effective.
Six, chemical control Application of chemical pesticides to control the occurrence of pests and diseases, is the necessary means of pest control of fruit trees, but also. Comprehensive control is an indispensable and important part. Although chemical pesticides pose problems such as environmental pollution, killing of natural enemies and residues, they have the advantage that they cannot be replaced by other control methods. Such as quick, effective, broad spectrum, easy to use, suitable for large-scale mechanical operations.
Section II Main Diseases and Their Prevention and Control Techniques 1. Grape black spot disease (I) Disease condition The disease can affect the leaves, fruits, shoots, petioles, fruit stems, cobs, tendrils and inflorescences of the grapes, especially at young ages. The tender part is the hardest hit. At the beginning of the leaf, small spots with reddish-brown needles to black-brown eyes are observed, and halo circles of light colors are observed around the leaves. Afterwards, they gradually enlarge to form a near-circular or irregular-shaped lesion with a diameter of 1 to 4 mm. The center is grayish and slightly white. Depression, dark brown or purple-brown edges. The middle leaves of the late lesions withered and the leaves appeared perforated. Vein vein damage was caused by polygonal lesions, resulting in leaf shrinkage and severely affecting photosynthesis. The fruit surface has a nearly circular light brown spot. The surrounding spots are purple-brown and the center is grayish and slightly sunken. It resembles a bird's eye. Some people call it bird eye disease. There are tiny black spots on the lesions, which are the conidia discs. The victim's fruit grows slowly, green, and the hard acid sometimes cracks and loses food value. The new shoots, petioles, cobs, and inflorescences produce lesions with dark brown ellipsoids that are slightly concave, and soon the middle of the lesions gradually turns grayish black, with purple black or dark brown edges.
(B) Control methods
1. Eradicate overwintering pathogens After autumn leaves, combine with winter shears to completely remove diseased vines, diseased leaves, diseased fruits, and dried husks on the main vines, and concentrate deeply or burn them.
2. Chemical control Beijing sprayed 50 times of lime sulfur mixture before the cold of the grapes buried; when the incidence is serious, when the grape bud scales inflated in early spring, spray 2 times for 30 times, and then add 0.3% pentachlorophenol sodium for lime sulfur. it is good. Or a single spray of 3 to 50 lime sulfur, or 200 to 300 times of sodium pentachlorophenol plus 10 lime sulfur; or 25% of other rot (double guanidinium salt) 200 to 400 times the liquid, eliminating the pathogenic bacteria overwhelming, and rust wall Aphids, scale insects, etc.
3. When the grape shoot grows to 3 to 5 leaves, spray Bordeaux mixture (1:0.5-0.7:200-240) or 50% Carbendazim WP 800 times every 10 days or so. 75% chlorothalonil WP 800 to 1000 times, or 65% zeocin WP 500 to 600 times. The above agents should be used alternately to prevent drug resistance.
Second, grape white rot disease (a) disease The disease mainly damage the ear, and sometimes new shoots and leaves are also infringed. The ears that are generally close to the ground have the earliest onset of cobs and pedicels, and the water spot-like lesions appear in the affected area at the beginning of the affected area. They gradually enlarge and surround the rachis to make the fruit soft and rot. On the surface of rotten fruit, gray and white spots are produced, ie conidia. During the wet season, the surface of the damaged fruit pieces burst and overflowed with pale yellow mucus.
At the beginning of dengue disease, it was a conidiophore of water-stained brown irregular germs. When it was severe, the dendrobium was dry and the epidermis was separated from the xylem. The cortex of the diseased section was split into a mess. Occasionally, the upper part of the diseased part produces callus, which becomes tumorous. The upper part of the diseased branch becomes yellow or reddish-brown until it dies. The leaves are mostly on the leaf tip or leaf margin, and the lesions are water-stained brownish-brown or irregular large lesions at the initial stage. The grayish-white, small-grained spots on the lesions are the same, which is the pathogenic conidia.
(B) Control methods
1. Clearing pathogenic diseases during disease onset and clearing sickles, diseased grains, and diseased leaves on trees and above ground, and deep burial will not only reduce re-infestation, but also reduce the number of overwintering germs. After falling leaves in autumn, the diseased tissues such as diseased branches, diseased leaves, and diseased fruits in the garden are completely removed, and the overwintering pathogens are reduced.
2. Strengthen the cultivation and management of reasonable pruning, timely vine vines, picking hearts, in addition to the auxiliary shoots and sparse leaves, create a ventilation and light environment, to reduce the incidence, and to increase organic fertilizer, foliar fertilizer, make the tree strong, improve disease resistance force. In addition, fruit near the ground. Ear bagging also reduces germ infestation.
3. Chemical control
(1) Eradicate winter pathogens: spray 3 to 50 lime sulfur or spray 50% methine wettable powder 200 times, or spray 5% potassium dan wettable powder to the trees and the ground before germination in early spring. The liquid has a good effect on eradicating overwintering germs, and can also treat anthrax, powdery mildew, brown spot and the like.
(2) Spray protection: After spraying, 50% Fumei WP 500 to 700 times, or 50% WP WP 800 times, or 75% chlorothalonil, will be used in conjunction with the treatment of black pox. Wettable powder 600 to 800 times liquid. Due to the strong copper-resistance of white rot fungi, the effect of spraying and preventing multi-liquid treatment of Boron is not good.
Third, grape anthracnose (a) disease The disease mainly damage the fruit, cobs and fruit stems can also be affected. Grapes are most severely infected at the late stage of berry coloring and are known as late rot. The disease usually begins at the tip of the ear near the ground, and water-stained brown spots appear on the fruit surface in the initial stage, gradually expanding, appearing as round dark brown lesions, and slightly sag. After 2 to 3 days, black spots are generated. Into a concentric ring, it is the spore plate of the germ. In rainy and wet weather, pink or orange-colored clusters (conidia and conidia) emerge from the dish. In severe cases, the lesion spreads to the entire fruit surface, the fruit particles become soft and rot, gradually lose water, shrink and shrink, and become dead fruit. When fruit stems and cobs are injured, elliptic bookworm lesions occur, affecting fruit ripening. Dense round brown spots on the leaves are dense, and even when they are severe, the leaves become yellow and fall off.
(B) Control methods
1. Elimination of wintering pathogens combined with winter pruning to remove the sub tips, cobs, tendrils, stamens, etc. left on the plants and scaffolds, and to completely clear, burn or bury the fallen leaves and fallen leaves.
2. Kill the sterilized filament mycelia mainly on the one-year-old branches for wintering, spraying 500 times before germination, or 100 to 200 times of Formamide, or spraying 30 lime sulfur plus 0.5% of sodium pentachlorophenol 200 Times, mixed liquid and other powerful bactericides to eliminate overwintering pathogens.
3. Chemical control When conidia occur in the middle to late June to early July, about once every 10 days, spray once 800 to 1000 times of the special wettable powder, or 500 to 800 times the liquid, or semi-quantity Bordeaux liquid 200 times, have received good results. But should be used alternately to improve the efficacy of four, grape downy mildew (A) diseased grape downy mildew mainly damage the leaves, but also harm the new shoots, buds and young fruit young part. The front of the blade appeared irregular yellowish translucent oil-immersed small spots, gradually expanded in green, the edge margin was not obvious, mostly several small spots connected together into an irregular or polygonal large lesion, and produced a yellowish white on the back of the leaves. The frosty mildew layer turns pale brown later in the lesion, and is crusted and scorched, and the leaves fall off in severe cases. Young shoots also appear as oily (or water) immersed lesions with yellow-white molds on the surface, but are sparser than leaves. The lesions spread rapidly in the longitudinal direction, the color gradually becomes brown, and they are slightly sunken. In severe cases, the shoots stop growing and distorted and die. In the early stage of young fruit disease, the diseased part became light green, and the later stage of disease became dark brown and subsided, resulting in a layer of frosty white mold, and the fruit became hard and atrophied. When the fruit is half deadly, the diseased part is browned, and the soft and soft rots easily fall off. However, no mold layer is produced, and a few of the diseased fruits shrink into the tree. Fruits usually do not develop from coloring to maturity.
(B) Control methods
1. Elimination of pathogens During the growing season and autumn pruning, the diseased branches, diseased leaves, diseased fruits, and concentrated burns must be completely removed.
2. Strengthen management In the course of growing, timely cutting off redundant auxiliary branches and leaves, creating ventilation and light transmission conditions. Pay attention to drainage during the rainy season, reduce the humidity, and pay attention to reduce the chance that the soil overwintering spores are splashed by the rain. In addition, more phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, and more lime in acidic soils can increase the disease resistance of the tree's disease-resistant trees.
(III) Chemical control A small amount of Bordeaux mixture is sprayed every 10 days before the onset of illness for protection. Immediately after the onset of illness, spray 50% Kedemane 5000 times, or 65% Zeoxin 500 times, or 40% BDP 200 times, or 25% metalaxyl 800 to 1000 times, or 58%. Manganese zinc can be wet powder 600 times liquid. In addition, 25% Methorsine wettable powder 20000 times and Daisen Zinc, mancozeb, Fumei double 1000 times wet better, and can concurrently treat other diseases occurring in the same period.
V. Grape Powdery Mildew (I) Pathogenic bacteria mainly invade the green parts of the leaves, shoots and ears of grapes. Older organs are not affected. The leaves begin to produce off-white powder on the surface, ie mycelia and conidia of the germ. When the onset is severe, the entire leaf is covered with white powder, causing more curls to wilt and fall off. Sometimes small black spots are produced, which are the closed shells of the spores. The surface of the lower leaves of the pink spots was brown spotted, and the whole leaves were dry and coke when they were serious. After the fruit is damaged, the white surface of the fruit surface is covered with a white powder. After the lesion is removed, a brown star-shaped pattern appears, and the epidermal cells die. The fruit stops growing and sometimes becomes deformed and sour. When the fruit grows up, it feels sick when it rains, and it rots after the disease has cracked. The surface of fruit stems and new shoots is grayish white, and snowflake-shaped or irregular brown spots are formed below the later spots, which makes the cobs and fruit stems brittle. The branches and vines do not mature well, affecting fruit quality and yield.
(B) Control methods
1. Remove pathogens During winter and summer pruning, collect sick branches, diseased leaves, and diseased fruits, and concentrate deeply.
2. Strengthen the growing season of fertilizers and water management Pay attention to drainage and flood prevention in the rainy season, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate and compound fertilizer in roots, increase tree vigor, increase resistance to disease, and timely picking, tying up vines, removing auxiliary shoots, improving ventilation and light transmission. Conditions to reduce the occurrence of diseases.
3. Chemical control Spray 3 to 50 lime sulfur mixture before sprouting grape bud without germination to completely eliminate overwintering pathogens. After the grape is sprouted, it can be sprayed to see the disease. It can spray 0.2 to 0.30 lime sulfur, or 50% sulfur suspension 300 to 400 times, or 50% rust thiophanate 500 times, or 70% thiophanate-methyl 1000 times. , Or 25% Triadimefon 500 times, generally sprayed once every 10 days, even spray 3 times, alternating medication, you can control. In addition, spray 0.5% surface alkaline water and water 0.1% detergent is also very good.
Six, grape brown spot disease (a) disease brown spot only damage the leaves, according to its lesion size and pathogens are divided into two types of brown spot disease.
1. Large spots of brown spots near the circle, the diameter of 3 ~ 10mm, the center has a deep, shallow interval brown ring, sometimes yellow halo outside. When the weather is wet, dark brown plexus is scattered on the surface and back of the lesion, ie, the conidiophore and conidia of the pathogen. In severe cases, several diseases connect together to form an irregularly shaped large lesion with a diameter of up to 20 mm or more, and the late lesion tissue ruptures, leading to early defoliation.
2. The small brown spot is brownish and nearly round, 2~3mm in diameter, and the size is the same. There can be several to several tens of lesions on a diseased leaf. A dark brown mold was produced on the back of a lesion at the later stage, namely the conidiophore and conidia of the pathogen.
(B) Control methods
1. Eradicate the overwintering pathogens. In the autumn, clean the leaves and burn them in time. When the winter cuts, remove the diseased leaves completely, sweep them, burn them, or deeply bury them.
2. Strengthen the management of tying up vines in time, picking up hearts, removing secondary shoots and old leaves, creating ventilation and light transmission conditions, and reducing the occurrence of diseases. Increase the application of organic fertilizer and spraying potassium phosphate 3 to 4 times to improve the tree disease resistance.
3. Chemicals prevention and treatment Early spring buds before expansion, before spraying, combined with other pests and spray 3 ~ 50 lime sulfur mixture, after the leaf spreading began in June every 10 days before spraying 1 half-type (1:0.5:200) Bordeaux mixture, or Zinc Zn 500 to 600 times, or spray 50% carbendazim 800 to 1000 times solution. Alternate application, the effect is good.
VII. Grape Blight (1) It is mainly to cut cobs, fruit stems and fruit grains, and sometimes to damage the leaves. At the beginning of the disease, colorless irregular lesions appeared at the base of small fruit stems, with dark brown halos that were not obvious at the edges, and gradually enlarged, which cut fruit stems, resulting in dehydration and wilting of fruit. In the late stage, it gradually shrinks and turns into a dark-black, stale fruit, and produces sparse black spots on the surface of the diseased fruit, that is, spores of pathogens. The stiff fruit hangs on the branch for a long time, which is one of the major differences between the disease and anthrax and white rot. When the leaves are susceptible to disease, round black-brown spots appear on the leaves, and the middle of the leaves turns to grayish white, and dense black spots appear on the leaves, which are the conidia and ascospora of the pathogen.
(B) Elimination of pathogens for overwintering should be cleaned and buried in time for diseased and diseased leaves.
1. Strengthen the management of Xuanyuan Park in a timely manner to tie up vines, pick hearts, and eliminate secondary shoots to create conditions for ventilation and light transmission. Pay attention to the application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers to increase tree disease resistance. Drain in time to prevent disease.
2. After the drug is prevented from falling, it is combined with white rot and anthrax to prevent and cure. With a small amount of Bordeaux spray 3 to 5 times, that is, spray every 10 days or so, the focus of spraying the ear, generally can be controlled.
In eight, grapevine blight is mainly responsible for damage, and sometimes it also damages shoots and fruits. The prevention methods are:
(1) The curettage was found in the early stages of the disease to promptly scrape the epidermis of the diseased area and, after exposing a good tissue, apply a 50% multi-bacterial wettable emulsion or lime sulfur residue.
(B) Elimination of pathogens Diseased branches found in the growing season or during winter cutting should be promptly cut off and burned.
(C) Chemical control before germination spray 3 ~ 50 lime sulfur mixture, growth phase combined with the prevention and treatment of other diseases spraying. From May to June, a small amount of 200-fold Bordeaux mixture was sprayed on the shoots.
The main pests and their prevention and control techniques 1. Grapes through the wing moth Grapes through the wing moth also known as the feather moth. It belongs to Lepidoptera, and it traverses the moth family. In Shandong. In Henan, Hebei, Shaanxi, Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang, it is one of the pests of production and production in grape growing regions.
(A) The harmed grapes are mainly damaged by grapevines. The larvae feed on shoots and old vines, usually from the base of the murderous or petiole. The victim's gradual enlargement and infestation with brown worms is a sign of infestation by the larvae. After the larvae enter the vines, they grazing towards the tender vines. In severe cases, the upper leaves of the victim plants die.
(B) the prevention and control methods First, in adult spawning and newly hatched larvae damage shoot stage, seize the opportunity, every 7 to 10 days spray 1 drug, and even spray 3 times the effect is good. The following medicines can be used: 50% dichlorvos 1500 times, or 40% omethoate 1000 to 1200 times, or enemy killed 3000 times, or 20% faster killing 3000 times, or 50%. Pegasus EC 1000 times, or 50% Thionine EC 1000 times.
Second, the winter and summer seasons are often inspected and found that the pods must be burned or buried in a timely manner. If there is a large quilt, you can use 50% dichlorvos or 200x enemy liquid to kill the larvae.
Second, grape phylloxera grape phylloxera belongs to the order Homoptera, Lycium. Local vineyards occurred in Liaoning, Shandong, Shaanxi, and Taiwan. Other areas have not yet been discovered. Once the vineyards are seriously damaged, they have been listed as the main quarantine objects at home and abroad.
(1) The harmed grape phylloxera has serious damage to the American cultivars, that is, it can damage the roots and damage the leaves. The Eurasian cultivars and European and American hybrids mainly harm the roots. The roots were damaged, and the roots of the fibrous roots were enlarged. The size of the millet grains and the rhomboid nodular knots were formed. A large nodule was formed on the main body. Leaves on the victim, the back of the leaf forms a number of granular worms. Therefore, grape nodules have nodules and leafhoppers. In the rainy season, root nodules often rot, causing the cortex to split and fall off, and the vascular bundles are destroyed, thus affecting the absorption and transport of nutrients and moisture by roots. At the same time, the affected roots are prone to infection by pathogens, leading to rot in the roots, debilitating the tree vigor, turning the leaves to yellow, and even defoliating, affecting the yield, and the whole plant will die in severe cases.
(B) Control methods
1. Strengthen Quarantine The only route of transmission for phylloxera in grape vines is seedlings. When quarantine, seedlings should pay special attention to whether or not the soil in the root system contains lice eggs, nymphs and adults. Once discovered, immediate treatment is carried out. The method is: soak seedlings and shoots with 50% phoxim 1500 times solution or 80% dichlorvos emulsion 1000 to 1500 times solution, or 40% dimethoate emulsifiable concentrate 1000 times soak for 1 to 2 minutes. Destroyed in place.
2. Soil treatment For vineyards or nurseries with phylloxera, carbon disulfide can be used for perfusion. Method: In the grape stem around the stem 25cm, per 1m2 perforation 8-9, deep 10 ~ 15cm, 6-8g liquid injection per hole in spring, summer injection of 4 ~ 6g per hole, the effect is better. However, they cannot be used during the flowering and harvesting periods to avoid the production of phytotoxicity. It is also possible to use 50% phoxim 500g to mix 50kg of fine soil, 25kg of soil per mu, and apply it at 3 to 4pm, and then turn it into the soil.
(3) Selection of Rootstocks Resistant to Root Burks China has introduced rootstocks with strong resistance to the root buds in harmony, freedom, and more Jin 1 and 5A, which can be selected.
Third, grape barberry grape barberry also known as grape red spider. It belongs to the eye, and it has a fine eye. This worm is one of the most important pests in China's grape growing areas. It is common in Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Liaoning, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. In recent years, there has been aggravating trends in other regions.
(1) Injurious larvae, nymphs, adult pests, new shoots, petioles, leaves, stems, spikes, and fruits. When the base of the new shoot suffers, the epidermis produces brown granules. The petiole is the same as the shoot. The leaves were damaged and brown rust spots appeared on both sides of the veins. In severe cases, the leaves lost green and yellow, and the coke fell off. Fruit stems and spikes become brown from black after being damaged. They are brittle and easy to fall. In the early stages of fruit stalks, the rust was light brown and the fruit surface was roughened and hardened, and sometimes split longitudinally from the fruit pedicle. The color and sugar content of mature fruits at the late stage of victimization are reduced, which has a great impact on grape yield and quality.
(b) Prevention and control methods First, before the cold, the old bark was stripped and burned to eliminate the overwintering female adults. Second, when the winter buds sprout, spray 30 lime sulfur + 0.3% detergent; between July and August, the density of insects is high. Use 40% triclosan 800-1000 times to spray and eliminate active insects.
Fourth, grape pods, also known as grape rust wall or felt disease. Belong to the eyes, 瘿螨 section. This worm is widely distributed, mainly in Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi and other places.
(A) The victim grapevines mainly damage the leaves and initially produce pale irregular spots on the back of the leaves, varying in size. Then the surface of the blade is uplifted and the back of the blade is sunken, showing white fleece felt, so it is called felt disease. Later, it gradually turned brown to dark brown, and the leaves shrank. In severe cases, young shoots and young fruit can also be harmed. Fluffy is also produced on it.
(B) Control methods
1. Elimination of pathogens In the growing season, diseased leaves should be removed promptly, buried deep or burned.
2. Chemical control Before spraying in early spring, spraying 50 lime sulfur, or spraying 0.5 ~ 1.50 lime sulfur buds germination, the control effect is better. After germination, medication is better than fruit before germination.
3. Seedling Disinfection Seedlings and cuttings are soaked in warm water at 40°C for 5 to 7 minutes, and then transferred to make up 50°C warm water and soaked for 5 to 7 minutes to kill the cockroaches in the scales.
Five, grape mealybug grape meal also known as Cornell mealybug. Belongs to the order Homoptera, Polygonaceae. All the grape producing areas in China are distributed, and parts of Henan, Hebei, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanxi, Jiangsu and Sichuan are relatively heavy. In addition to harming grapes, peaches and figs can be harmful.
(1) Injured adults and larvae suck sap at the leaves of the back, the shade of the fruit, the axis of the spikelet in the ear, and spikes, etc., and affect the growth and development of the fruit. The fruit or ear stalk is damaged and the surface is brownish-black and greasy. It is not easy to be washed away by the rain. In severe cases, the entire ear is stuffed with white cotton wool. The appearance of the victim’s fruit is poor, the sugar content is reduced, and even the value of the commodity is lost.
(B) the prevention and control method First, a reasonable pruning, to prevent excessive foliage, so as not to cause a suitable environment for the whitefly. Second, when it is pruned in autumn, the litter is removed and the old skin is removed, and the overwintering egg pieces are brushed out and burned. Thirdly, during the hatching period of each generation of larvae, spray 50% trithiophos-phosphate 2000 times solution or 80% dichlorvos EC 1000 times, or 50% killer birch EC 800 to 1000 times solution. Damage to the ear can be achieved by dipping 300 to 400 times 25% imidothiophosphate EC to kill the larvae within the ear.
Six, ten-star ladybug, leafhopper, ten-star ladybird leaf, also known as ten-star leafhopper or golden flower. Belongs to Coleoptera, leafhopper family. This worm occurs in Shaanxi, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei, Hubei, Zhejiang, Guangdong and Fujian provinces.
(1) The infected ladybirds, leafhoppers, take adult plants and larvae to eat plant shoots and leaves. The leaves are often bitten into holes. When they are born, all the leaves are eaten and leaves only veins.
(b) Prevention and control methods First, clean the pastoral areas, burn the dead branches and leaves that have been cut off, and peel and burn old cracked skins. Second, to protect natural enemies, parasitoids and parasite flies in the flood season, and spray all drugs to protect natural enemies. Using the larvae to death and silk fall habits, manual killing. Third, spraying 90% trichlorfon and 40% dimethoate emulsion 800 to 1000 times, the control effect is better. Seventh, grape Hummer grape Hummer, also known as smoke Hummer. It belongs to the order of Thysanoptera and Thripidae. This worm has been widely distributed in the grape production areas of our country. In recent years, the damage to grapes has been growing. According to reports from the Shenyang Agricultural University in 1989, in the Gai County grape production base in Liaoning Province, the rate of planted plants was as high as 100%, the ear rate reached 69.8%, the ear rate was 48.2%, and the number of serious vineyard plants was 100%. The spike rate of 75% or more resulted in a significant reduction in the yield and quality of the grapes. Hummer can not only harm the grapes, but also harm apple, plum, plum, citrus and other fruit trees. Thrips is an emerging grape pest.
(I) Grapes of the affected species Thrips are mainly nymphs and adults sucking mouthparts to suck juice of young fruit, young leaves and new shoots. The young fruit was not discolored at the time, and the victim’s part was dehydrated and dried on the second day to form a small dark spot, which affected the appearance of the fruit, reduced the value of the product, and caused severe fruit cracking. The damage to the leaves was destroyed due to the purity of the leaf greens. The greenish yellow spots appeared first, and the later leaves became smaller, curled, dried, and sometimes perforated. The growth of damaged shoots is inhibited.
(b) Prevention and control methods First, clean up the weeds in the vineyard and burn dead branches and leaves. Second, spraying 10% to 2 days of omethoate 1000 to 1500 times before flowering, or 50% of malathion, 40% of nicotine sulfate, and 2.5% of rattan are all 800 times. Better results. Third, garden grapes can be sprayed with low-toxic high-effective insecticides to kill butyl or deltamethrin (enemycidal) from 2000 to 2500 times, and they should be inspected about 5 days after spraying. If heavy pests are still found, carry out immediately. The second spray.

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Sodium cyclamate, CAS no.139-05-9, an artificial sweetener with two food grade, Plate (CP95) & Needle-like (NF13)  grade, appears as a white needle-shaped or flaky crystalline powder. Manufacturing process via chemical synthesis, cyclohexane and sulfamic acid as the main raw materials. The sweet of Sodium cyclamate is 30–50 times sweeter than sugar. Sodium Cyclamate used widely in food manufacturing, such as drinks, candied fruits, preserved fruits, cosmetics, toothpaste, used for household seasonings, such as cooking,used as a substitute sugar in patients with diabetes and obesity, also in the pharmaceutical industry, for the production of the icings, syrups and the like.

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Sodium Cyclamate

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