Disease and Insect Pest Control of Golden Mushroom Cultivation

(I) Several common bacterial diseases
1. The bacterial root rot pathogen is Enterobacteriaceae, Erwinia, rod-shaped, flagellar. At the beginning of the infestation, white turbid droplets were leached from the mushrooms on the surface of the medium. Mushroom rot quickly rotted, brown to maltose, and finally dark brown, sticky and stinking. The root cause of root rot is the direct spraying of bacteria-laden water on the mushroom body. Because the mushroom tussock is dense, the surface area is large, and the respiration is very strong. Water cannot be dissipated in time, and heat is generated. The pathogenic bacteria will be in proper temperature conditions. Under a large number of reproductive growth, produce root rot. The main method of prevention and control is to prohibit spraying water onto the mushroom body. Once onset, harvest immediately and apply 1 carbendazim to the bed of bacteria.
2. Fungal contamination Mold is the enemy of golden mushroom. In winter, raw materials for cultivation of Flammulina velutipes are the most serious genus Trichoderma and Penicillium.
There are many species of Trichoderma, such as Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. Easy to mix with the Penicillium, the appearance of a slightly different color, Penicillium infection is darker, blue-green, while the color of Trichoderma shallow, mostly green or copper green. After cultivation, the hyphae of Trichoderma vitiligo were spread across the surface to form a flat colony. The mycelium was colorless, and the erect conidiophore was extended upward. The spore stems were branched into two opposite sides. Branches eventually formed small stalks with clustered conidia at the top of the stalks. Once Trichoderma occurs on the mushroom bed, it will soon extend to fruiting bodies.
Penicillium, widely distributed in the natural environment, is highly susceptible to infection. The conditions were suitable for germination of mycelium from 1 to 2 days, and soon developed into white mycelium. It was difficult to recognize at the initial stage until many green spores were found and irregular blue-green contaminated areas with irregular shapes and sizes were found on the surface of the culture material. Once the spread occurs, it is extremely fast. It often happens after the first tidal mushroom.
After fungal contamination occurs on the bed of bacteria, the culture medium must be removed as soon as possible. Strengthen the ventilation of the mushroom bed. Do not spray water on the mushroom body during the mushrooming period to prevent bacterial strains from getting bacterial diseases and induce mold breeding due to the increase of the bed temperature.
(2) Common insect pests Mushrooms, mushrooms, and maggots occur in the later stages of production. Because the temperature is low in the early stage of cultivation, these pests are unlikely to occur. The method of prevention and control is at the later stage of production (when the temperature of mushroom house is raised to above 18°C), it can prevent some insecticide and acaricide spraying in the mushroom house.
(c) Integrated control measures for pests and diseases To master the growth law of mushroom and fungus and adopt a series of active ecological control measures.
1. Low-temperature cultivation Almost all spores, spores, or their dormant species must germinate at temperatures above 24°C. The mycelium of the mushroom grows well at a low temperature of 7~11°C. In addition, the mushroom is a low-temperature robust fungus, so the mushroom has the conditions for low-temperature cultivation. Low-temperature cultivation is the most important means to control pests and diseases.
2. Low-humidity and velveteen mushroom mycelia can continue to grow under the ratio of material to water of 1:0.5~1:0.9. When the ratio of material to water is 1:1~1:1.5, it will grow faster and will not easily pollute other bacteria. When the ratio of feed to water reached 1:2.1, the mushroom mycelium stopped growing, and all the bacteria were contaminated. This is due to too much moisture in the culture material, which dilutes the concentration of the bacterial cell plasminogen, which makes it less resistant to infection, and can easily cause contamination of the bacteria. If the culture material is too much water, it will cause insufficient air and the respiration of the mycelium will be affected. Inhibition results in premature mycosis and bacterial contamination. Therefore, grasp the ratio of feed water when mixing materials; during the growth of mycelium, the air humidity of the cultivation room should be suitable; during the mushrooming period, do not spray water onto the mushroom bed. These low-wet bacteria cultivation measures can make the mycelium grow vigorously and the mushroom body grows. Robust, while the bacteria are controlled.
3. Adding nutrients Wheat bran, corn flour, rice bran, etc. are not only good nutrients for velutine mushroom breeding, but various kinds of bacteria are also very fond of it. Some people think that the addition of these nutrients, because it contains nutrients such as starch and soluble sugar, is easily used by bacteria, often causing pollution. We believe that under the premise of low-temperature cultivation, increasing the amount of strains will allow mushroom to occupy the bacteria bed in the short-term within the rich nutrients. Many experiments and production practices have proved that the medium with added food nutrients has a higher survival rate than that of pure cotton seed husks, and the hyphae account for faster beds. Note that the premise is low temperature, if the ambient temperature exceeds 15 °C, do not add the above nutrients.
In addition, strengthening ventilation management and using high-quality, fresh strains are also important measures.

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