Artificial Breeding of Loach in the North and Ecological Cultivation of Paddy Field

Mudworms, also known as squid, are classified as 鲤 鲤, Mud 鳅, and Locust. Mainly distributed in freshwater rivers, ditches, paddy fields, ponds, lakes, etc., is a relatively common freshwater economic fish.
Muddy meat is delicate, delicious, and has the reputation of ginseng in water. It not only has a high food value, but also has a sweet taste, qi and benefits, dampness and evil, and can cure diabetes, acne, and night sweats in children. There are also good medicinal nourishing functions, often eating loach can beauty, prevent colds and so on.
Muddy domestic market price is 10 to 16 yuan per kilogram, the international market price is considerable, the port price of 30 yuan per kilogram, the Korean market price of up to 70 yuan per kilogram. According to the domestic and international market demand, vigorous development of loach artificial breeding prospects are very broad.
The author will provide practical mud breeding and paddy field ecological breeding techniques for the general farmers for reference.
First, artificial breeding and seedling cultivation of loach (I) Artificial propagation
1. The best source of intimacy is best sourced from the original loach or selected from natural waters. It requires strong physique, no disease and no injury, aged 2 to 3 years, female body weight 15 to 25 g, and male body weight 12 g or more.
2. Family friendly
At the beginning of April, the ratio of 1:2 to 1:1.5 of males and females of the relatives of the parents in the broodstock cultivation pond with an area of ​​80 to 120 square meters and a water depth of 70 to 80 cm is stocked at a stocking density of 0.5 to 1 kg per square meter. Before the broodstock is stocked, clear ponds must be disinfected, pools should be reinforced, and when they are stocked, they must be sterilized with 3% to 5% of saline for about 5 minutes.
3. After intimacy is cultivated and put into the pond, timely feeding of full-price compound feeds with a feed protein content of at least 35% and moderate amounts of animal minced meat is required. The feed requires fresh palatability, no spoilage, and no pollution. Feeding amount generally accounts for 5% to 8% of fish weight. Invest twice daily on prenatal day, 7am-8am and once in the evening, including 30% in the morning and 70% in the afternoon. Postpartum feeding once in the evening every day. During the cultivation period, fresh water 10cm will be injected every 7 to 10 days, and lime slurry will be splashed every 15 days, which is 15 to 20g per cubic meter of water.
4. artificial oxytocin (1) oxytocin broodstock selection. When the water temperature reaches around 22°C, select the abdomen with a full, soft and elastic abdomen. You can see the outline of the ovaries with your abdomen facing upwards. You can touch the ribs on your abdomen with your hands. The healthy and disease-free female and hand touch the pectoral fins. The sensed male fish is used for oxytocin production.
(2) Oxygen production drugs and methods of use. Types of oxytocin include human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues (LHRH-A2), and domoxone maleate (DOM). The dosages used alone were: HCG 5 IU/g to 10 IU/g, LHRH to A20.01 μg/g to 0.02 μg/g; the mixed use dose was DOM 0.003 mg/g to 0.005 mg/g+LHRH to A20.005 μg/g. Male fish halved. The injection method uses one injection, and the oxytocide is diluted with 0.9% physiological saline, and is now ready for use. The amount of the drug solution is formulated at 0.2mL per tail. The injection site is the back muscle, the needle and the fish are at an angle of 45 degrees, and the depth of the needle is 0.3cm to 0.4cm. After the injection, the broodstock is put into the cage.
5. Preparation for spawning facilities Spawning is made with a 40-mesh screen to make spawning boxes, depending on the scale of production. The bottom of the box tiled palm fish nest. The bred broodstock was placed in the box at a ratio of 1:1.2 to 1:1.5. When spawning, it is necessary to keep the surrounding environment quiet. Generally, the oxytocin effect time is 11 to 13 hours, and spawning can last 7 to 8 hours.
6. Incubation can be done using hatching cylinders, loops, cages and other tools. 0.4 cubic meters of water in the incubation tank can put 60 to 100 million eggs, ring road per cubic meter of water can be laid 8 to 100 million eggs, cages per cubic meter of water can be laid around 200,000 eggs. The most suitable water temperature for hatching is 20°C to 28°C, and the membrane rupture time is 30 to 35 hours. During the incubation, it is necessary to strengthen management, and often wash and filter screens to prevent running seedlings. According to the development of the fry, the water flow and aeration rate can be adjusted. On the third day of membrane rupture, the fish nest can be taken out and fed with bait, such as rotifers and egg yolks. After three days of feeding, the fish can be transferred to the larval rearing stage.
(B) The seedling cultivation ponds used for seedling cultivation are preferably 30 to 100 square meters in water depth of 40 to 60 cm. Pool ponds, pond bottoms, pool bottoms, it is best to pave 15 ~ 20cm of mud. Intake and drainage are designed to block the dense mesh of the fish, and the duckweed will be placed into the duckweed which accounts for 1/4 of the total area. Before clearing the seedlings, disinfect according to routine clear ponds, fill water 50-60cm, apply 0.3-0.5kg organic fertilizer per square meter, stir the bottom of the pool every 1 to 2 days, and put fry at the peak of 7-10 days, per square meter 800 to 1000 seedlings are released, and the temperature difference during stocking does not exceed 2°C.
In the course of cultivation, a small amount of fresh water is poured in, followed by the fermentation of chicken manure, and the cultivation of natural food organisms. A large branch angle appears in the pool and is killed with 0.3 g/m3 to 0.5 g/m3 of trichlorfon. If the natural food is insufficient, the egg yolk, fish meal, milk powder, soya bean milk and other concentrates can be added. When the fry grows to 2.5 ~ 3cm, it can be diversified or sold in ponds.
II. Ecological Farming in Paddy Fields Cultivation of muddy paddy fields is an integral part of the ecological fisheries in paddy fields and has many advantages and benefits. First, it can achieve the effect of one-water dual-use and one-site dual-recovery without destroying the original ecosystem of rice fields and without increasing the use of water resources. 70 to 100 kg of loach can be harvested per mu of paddy field, and rice can maintain its original yield and directly increase economic efficiency. Second, the ecological effect is more prominent. The main manifestation is that the loach can directly eat some of the harmful insects in the water and play a part in biological control of diseases and insect pests. The use of pesticides reduces food contamination. Third, the activity of loach in rice fields can play a role in loosening the soil and increase rice production. Fourth, save food and reduce farming costs.
(I) Selection of Paddy Fields Paddy fields with sufficient water sources, good water quality, convenient drainage and irrigation, and strong water retention capacity should be selected as the breeding and paddy fields.
(II) Preparation before Breeding
1. Raise the height of the field ridge to keep the water level and prevent the leakage of the ridge. The height of field ridges is 50 to 100 cm, the width of ramie groups is 100 to 120 cm, and the width of ridges is 40 to 60 cm. Be solid and prevent heavy rain from hitting the field.
2. Set anti-escape nets At the base of the field hoe, dig a 20cm pre-embedded net to prevent fleeing. The upper part is buried at a height of 5cm above the highest water mark. The density of the mesh should not escape from the fish.
3. The role of excavating fish ditch, fish slipping and digging fish ditch, and fish slipping is mainly to solve the contradiction between fertilization and application of paddy fields and drying of fields and aquaculture, and another is to facilitate the recovery of loach.
Fish ditch width is generally 50 ~ 60cm, deep 40 ~ 50cm. The fish slip is a fish pit. Dig a small pit of 3 to 5 square meters at the point where you enter the water outlet to the fish ditch.
4. Inlet and Outlet Setting The inlet and outlet ports are all set to block the fish net or fish traps, and they are placed diagonally in the paddy field to reduce the dead angle of the field when entering the water.
5. Fish ditch, fish slip fertilization before stocking in the fish ditch, fish slip Shi Shiji fertilizer, apply 0.4 to 0.5kg per square meter fermented organic fertilizer, in order to facilitate the breeding of food organisms.
(III) Breeding mode
1. Plate, the mode described earlier.
2. The difference between the double-row type and the flat type is mainly the difference between the method of planting rice and the traditional method of planting. The row spacing is 6 inches and 12 inches. Daxie double lines increase lighting and effectively increase rice yield.
(4) Loach stocking time is generally 10 days after transplanting. Before stocking, soak the fish with 3% to 5% salt water for 5 to 10 minutes. Stocking densities generally range from 3 to 4 cm for 30 to 40 fish per square metre, or 5 to 8 cm for 20 to 30 fish.
(five) feeding and management
1. The bait and the feed to the loach are very extensive. Wild juveniles, juveniles, insects, bean dregs, rice bran, bean cakes and artificial diets can all be ingested. Feeding bait should pay attention to the full price balance of nutrients. Try to use full-priced feeds that are inexpensive, nutritious, and well-tolerated. Daily feeding is generally 8% to 5% of the total amount of fish, depending on the increase or decrease in the fish's diet, the feeding site should be selected in the fish ditch. Daily feeding twice.
2. Disease prevention and treatment adopt the principles of disease-free prevention, early disease prevention, comprehensive prevention, and active treatment. Thorough clearing of ponds, disinfection of fish species, regulation of water quality, careful operation, avoiding fish injuries, careful management, reasonable stocking, balanced nutrition, etc. Once a disease occurs, it must be correctly diagnosed and rationally used to prevent loss of misuse of drugs.
Loach several common disease prevention methods. (1) Saprolegnia: The water temperature at the time of onset is low, and most of the fish body is injured, the body surface is visible gray cotton flocculus hair. Infected with the disease can be used 3% to 4% of salt water dip sick fish for 5 to 7 minutes or so, and then with 0.3mg / L of dibromohydantoin spill pool. (2) Print disease: The lesions are red and swollen, and the lesions are mostly round or oval, mainly in the latter part of the fish body. Can be used 1mg / L bleach Quanchiposa once every other day. Or use 0.3mg/L dibromohydantoin. (3) Fin fin disease: The diseased fish has fins, abdominal skin, and anal congestion, ulceration, caudal fins, and pectoral fins white and rot. Can Quanchiposa sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the pool water into 0.3mg/L ~ 0.5mg/L. (4) Trichodiasis: The diseased fish has a darker body and more mucus on the body surface and mucus. It produces a layer of white pimple on the dense parts of the head, body surface, and fins. Copper sulfate and ferrous sulfate mixture (5:2) can be used to splash the whole pool, so that the pool water becomes 0.7mg/L.
In addition to diseases, there are also some biological predators, such as snakes, birds, ferocious fish, water rats, etc. These creatures are all natural enemies of the mud. They must strengthen management, kill or drive in time, and reduce unnecessary losses.
(6) There are many methods for catching muddy mud from the mud. There are cage traps, drug traps, net traps, and dry pond traps. Among them, cage traps are more common and effective.
Cage trapping is based on muddy habits. The cage is set in the ditch of the paddy field. Loach foods, such as fried rice bran or silkworm cocoon, are placed in the cage. The cages used for catching are mostly reed braided. It is a 30- to 40-cm long, 10cm-diameter barrel with a tapered funnel. Generally, the catching effect is better at night, and can be harvested once every 2 to 3 hours. By using this method, the catch rate can reach 80%.

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