First, fully rely on the production capacity within the organic system to plant fertilizer through orchards
Grasses have a variety of integrated effects on orchards:
The first is to increase soil organic matter content. After 5 years of planting grass, the content of soil organic matter can be increased by about 1%.
The second is to regulate soil moisture and increase water use efficiency. The soil moisture in the grass orchard can increase by 2% in spring, and the rainy season grass can absorb and evaporate water.
The third is to increase the effective utilization of nutrient elements. Grass has strong absorption of ammonia, phosphorus, iron, calcium, zinc, boron and other elements, and they can change from non-absorbable state to absorbable state through grass transformation. For example, the roots of white clover for every 667 square meters can increase the amount of ammonia in soil equivalent to 15 kg of urea.
The fourth is to regulate soil temperature. Grass cover can make the orchard soil temperature change small, winter soil frozen late, frozen layer shallow, early spring thaw early, midsummer soil temperature is not high.
Fifth, the humidity of the orchard orchard increases and the temperature difference increases, which is very beneficial to the accumulation of nutrients and increases the sugar content of the fruit.
The sixth is to increase the number of natural enemies of pests, reduce pesticide input, and reduce pesticide residues. Seventh, we can suppress the growth of weeds and reduce weeding labor.
Grasses should be selected for hairy wolfberry, white clover and beans, rape and other crops. Trichophyton rubrum and white clover have a large amount of grass production (about 2,500 kg of fresh grass per 667 square meters), high coverage, and a large number of rhizobial bacteria in the roots, and their own consumption of nutrients is minimal, but they can provide a large amount of nitrogen to the soil and Organic matter. The best sowing date for cassia seed and rapeseed is in August. In the following year, the flowering period can be turned into soil or castrated directly to cover the tree plate. The clover is suitable for spring or autumn sowing or sowing. The sowing volume of 667 square meters is about 0.5 kg and sowed in the tree line. After pinging, it will be cut 2-4 times a year. The mowing grass will directly cover the tree plate or return the abdomen to the field. In the autumn, the base fertilizer will be used to fill the lower part of the ditch. The white clover will be deeply turned after 4-5 years and then sown again.
2. Make full use of field crop straw, weeds, and other fields within the organic apple base.
The main role of straw mulching is to increase soil organic matter, significantly reduce soil water loss, and reduce ground temperature amplitude. Coverage should be carried out after the ground temperature is stable. The thickness of the cover should be 15-20 cm. The cover should be pressed properly to prevent wind blow and fire. The tree line covers 667 square meters of 1000-1250 kilograms of straw and 2000-2500 kilograms of the entire park. Regardless of the method used for straw coverage, gaps should be left within 30 cm from the trunk to facilitate spring temperature rise and prevent rats and rabbits from harming. After the straw is covered, grass should be added year after year, adhere to 4-5 years, and then combined with autumn fertilization into the soil.
It should be noted that straw and weeds in organic apple orchard buffers and conventional planting areas should not be directly used as cover for organic orchards. According to the national "Organic Product" standard, they must be used in organic apple orchards after high-temperature stacking fermentation and full maturity.
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