2010 was a year in which science and medicine broke through. The German doctor announced that he had cured an AIDS patient; PLX4032, a new anti-cancer drug developed by Plesikon Pharmaceuticals, was eye-catching in early clinical trials for the treatment of melanoma; in addition, scientists created "artificial cells" for the first time.
So, what major medical advances may emerge in 2011? The U.S. Fun Science website reported seven major predictions from medical experts. If these breakthroughs become a reality, perhaps we will lead a healthier and more happy life.
Scientists will announce HIV vaccine research results
In December 2010, German scientists published a report in the monthly Blood of the United States saying that they had "cure" an AIDS patient through bone marrow transplantation. Scientists said that in 2007, an American male HIV-infected person was treated with bone marrow transplantation in Berlin due to leukemia. At that time, the donor's bone marrow matching was not only very consistent, but also had a gene that could naturally resist HIV. Delta 32.3 Later, this American patient no longer has signs of leukemia and HIV infection.
The researchers said in the report: "The results of the study show very clearly that this patient's AIDS has been cured, which provides researchers with more clues to use gene therapy or other methods to treat AIDS."
But Michael Zag, the former president of the American Association for HIV Medicine, believes that if this method is turned into standard therapy, there is a greater risk. Anthony Fossi, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, also believes that the current method of treating AIDS cannot be applied because the costs and risks are too high.
However, another scientific breakthrough is likely to help more people overcome AIDS in 2011. In September 2009, the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand announced that for the first time, a combined vaccine has been tested and confirmed to reduce the risk of HIV infection by one-third. Susan Zola-Pazler, an expert in HIV immunology at the New York University Langney Medical Center, said that this is the first sign of success for the HIV vaccine and points the way for future research.
Zola-Pazler pointed out that the German doctors' treatment of AIDS is very limited because only a small proportion of people with AIDS can find matching bone marrow that can fight HIV naturally. Even so, these patients may also die in bone marrow transplants. Therefore, the hope still lies in the research and development of HIV vaccines, and scientists are expected to announce the results of the research on this vaccine in mid-2011.
The frozen method regains the "heart" of patients with atrial fibrillation
The American Heart Association said that 2.2 million people across the United States suffer from atrial fibrillation, and atrial fibrillation can lead to fatigue, shortness of breath, and even stroke. However, a device that can freeze heart tissue will keep them out of the sea of â€‹â€‹suffering.
In December 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the cryosphere of Medtronic, a manufacturer of cardiac electronic medical devices, for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. It is understood that the treatment of frozen balloons is mainly to place the balloon on the left atrium pulmonary vein outlet, and then fill the balloon with refrigerant, destroy the pulmonary vein outlet tissue and achieve treatment of atrial fibrillation.
A spokesperson for the company said that in the key clinical trials, the cryo-balloon treatment was 10 times more effective than anti-arrhythmic drugs, and the safety was similar to that of the latter. In patients treated with cryoballoons, there was a 70% chance of complete atrial fibrillation, compared with 7% of patients treated with other drugs.
Moussa Mansour of Massachusetts General Hospital of the United States used the device in clinical operations. He said that the cure rate of this treatment model is as high as 70%. The cure rate of traditional radiofrequency ablation is also similar, but the new method is simpler to implement. The approval of new therapies will allow more people to receive treatment.
More people can accept gastric band weight loss surgery
According to statistics, 7.2 million Americans are obese, and many obese people hope to achieve weight-loss goals through gastric banding surgery. Although studies have shown that stomach band bariatric surgery may be the most effective treatment in a sense, it has been controversial in the United States.
The essence of gastric banding surgery is to wrap the bandage around the upper part of the stomach and achieve weight reduction by reducing the amount of food needed by the patient to achieve satiety. Previously, the FDA stipulated that this procedure was only suitable for those morbidly obese patients, that is, people with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 40 or a BMI of more than 35 and who have a severe disease due to obesity.
At the end of 2010, the FDA revised the legal criteria for gastric banding surgery by voting, and it is stipulated that anyone with a BMI of more than 35 or a BMI of more than 30 who suffers from other serious physical diseases can perform the operation.
George Fieldfeld, of the bariatric surgery division of New York University Langney Medical Center, said surgery is very useful. However, some doctors also stress that there is a huge risk of opening the patient's body. Li Kaplan, director of the Weight Loss Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, also said that although the operation is indeed effective, any surgery is invasive and carries risks.
Kaplan said that because of the risks, only 2% of those who meet the standards set by the FDA will actually undergo the surgery. Reducing the body mass index by 5 points does not increase the number of people receiving the surgery.
Campus action will reduce next generation obesity rate
The United States' Child Health, Hunger Free Act will take effect in 2011. As more and more obese children in the United States have been diagnosed with hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes that were previously only adults, the new law has helped reverse this worrying trend.
In December 2010, US President Barack Obama signed the bill to provide children with healthier school meals to fight child hunger. Obama said that now, there are many children across the United States who are unable to enjoy school meals and the meals are not healthy enough.
The bill guarantees $4.5 billion over the next 10 years to support the government's child nutrition program, including school meals. This will allow more American children to enjoy campus meals and allow the Ministry of Agriculture to tailor nutrition guidelines for foods for school meals, including vending machines.
At present, there are 17 million children in the United States living in families that find it difficult to live. One third of American children are overweight or obese. Michelle First Lady also launched the "Let's Get It Started" program in February 2010, which also aims to reduce the child obesity rate.
Kaplan called the bill "very good." He said: "Now obesity has become a more serious problem than malnutrition."
New menu will reduce daily calorie intake
In March 2010, the U.S. Congress passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, which requires chain restaurants with more than 20 restaurants to list the total calories contained in a meal before the spring of 2011. the amount. According to the FDA, the new bill also requires the listing of the number of calories sold in the vending machines.
In fact, as early as July 2008, New York City was the first to set a precedent. Chain restaurants such as fast food restaurants and casual restaurants were required to clearly list the calorie content of food on the menu. The authorities pointed out that the new regulations can prevent at least 150,000 New Yorkers from becoming overweight and prevent at least 30,000 people from suffering from diabetes within five years.
The doctor said that the new bill will make people realize that a cup of latte coffee may contain 300 calories; a small dish of cookies may contain 1,000 calories. As to whether this measure will greatly reduce the obesity rate in the United States, doctors are unwilling. Kaplan said that the new bill may be useful, but the actual effect may be minimal.
The genome will find the right medicine for people
International Top Cardiologist and Eric Tupper, Director of the American Academy of Scripps Conversion Research Institute, said that 10 years ago, sequencing a complete human genome could cost 3 billion U.S. dollars; in 2010, the cost would drop to 10,000 U.S. dollars. Around the dollar. In 2011, its cost is expected to drop to 4,000 US dollars. Moreover, as sequencing costs continue to decrease, more breakthroughs in the field of genome research will occur in 2011. He said: "This area is booming after the spring rain."
For example, Toporp said that last year, Meco Healthcare and CVC/Caremark, the largest pharmaceutical retailer in the United States, began testing large-scale patient genes for the heart disease drug Plavix. The researchers found that the two genes PON1 and CYP2C19 can determine how patients respond to Plavix. "These two genes explain why this drug (which is the world's second-largest sales volume) will work well in two-thirds of patients, but it will be ineffective for others or have side effects."
Topor said: "Gene analysis will save a lot of costs, so that patients will not long-term use those expensive drugs that do not help the disease in the slightest."
Genome research helps to understand cancer
Topol predicts that the reduction in the cost of genome sequencing will also bring good news to cancer research. "Since sequencing has become so cheap and quick, biological information is becoming more advanced." With these more rapid technologies, cancer researchers will be able to compare the patient's innate genome with the mutated genomes caused by their tumors to find the genes that cause cancer.
Topor said that such studies have benefited melanoma patients who are taking the potent drug PLX4032. Genome studies have demonstrated that patients with melanoma tumors with BRAF mutations will benefit from the drug; patients with BRAF mutations in their tumors will worsen their condition after taking the drug. Toper said that in 2011, similar studies will all become better.
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