Grape cultivation technology

The facilities used for cultivation of grapes are commonly used plastic film solar greenhouses. According to the different time of fruit market, it is divided into promoting cultivation and delayed cultivation. Contributing to cultivation refers to fruit ripening earlier than open-field cultivation, such as fruit ripening in May; delayed cultivation refers to fruit ripening later than open-field cultivation, such as fruit ripening in December. The cultivation of grape facilities is a new industry that is capital, technology and labor-intensive. There are many cultivation management techniques in production that need to explore the choice of a variety: The main varieties suitable for the cultivation of grape plants are: Panorna, Dinah, and Violet. Zhenxiang, Jingya, Jingxiu, Rizamat, Phoenix 51, Red Shuangwei, Ziyu, 8612, Coreless White Chicken Heart, Jingyou, Big June Purple, and Kyoho. 2 Construction and Planting Management
2.1 Planting Density Facilities Grapes generally use single-shelf type racks, spacing can be 0.8 meters 1.5 meters, 66 square meters planted 550, height 1.2 ~ 1.4 meters is appropriate. Can also be used double fence type, plant spacing of 0.5 meters 1.5 ~ 1.8 meters, 667 square meters planted 740 ~ 880 strains.
2.2 Management after planting First of all, we must plant seedlings. When planting trees, apply basic fertilizers, and strengthen fertilizer and water management and pest control after planting. When the new shoot grows to 20~30 centimeters, it is necessary to carry out topping to promote the secondary shoots to germinate. Two to four buds were selected from the shoots after germination, and the resulting shoots were cultured. The rest of the shooter tipping to 0.6~1 m will be carried out to pick up the heart to promote the development of the lower bud. At the same time, it is necessary to timely bury the pillars, pull the wire, and tie the new shoots to the shelves for growth.
After the grape grows, trim it in time. According to different tree vigor, different pruning methods are adopted. For the plants with weak growth potential, short shoot pruning is performed at 3-5 shoots near the surface; for plants with moderate growth, the shoots can be grown at 30-50 cm. Short cuts, then tied horizontally on both sides of the first wire, for the growth of strong plants to be long-tip pruning, occupy the upper space, expand the resulting area.
3 Key technologies for cultivation of grape facilities
3.1 The determination of the shed time is similar to that of other deciduous fruit trees. There are also dormancy phenomena in the buds of the grapes. As the new shoots of grapes mature from the bottom up, shoots (also known as winter shoots) that did not germinate on new shoots gradually enter the state of physiological sleep. This dormant state is usually released after falling leaves after about 1 month of low temperature. The effective temperature to break the natural dormancy is 0 to 7.2 degrees Celsius, completely breaking the natural dormancy needs to pass through the low temperature of 7.2 degrees Celsius for 1000 to 1200 hours. Kyoho, which is managed from the end of May to the beginning of June in the second year of the year, is generally held in early December. Other precocious species can start to be shed by the end of November. If the berry ripening is to be brought to market in advance, artificially concentrated pre-cooling can be performed after falling leaves.
In the first 3 to 5 days of the shed, the grass curtains are covered during the day so that the temperature in the shed gradually increases from below zero under natural conditions to 12 degrees Celsius to 13 degrees Celsius. After the soil in the shed is completely thawed, it is heated during the day. After 15 to 20 days, the bud begins to sprout; after 60 to 65 days, it begins to bloom and the flowering period lasts 12 to 15 days. The time from flowering to fruit ripening varies from species to species. The Kyoho grape takes about 100 days, and the early maturing variety takes a short time.
3.2 Temperature Control Prior to flowering, the control temperature should be below 25 degrees Celsius during the day, and when the temperature exceeds 25 degrees Celsius, the top wind should be properly placed. At night, the temperature is maintained at 7-8 degrees Celsius. If necessary, warming is needed to prevent nighttime temperatures from being too low.
The temperature before and after flowering is preferably 15-28 degrees Celsius. When the temperature exceeds 30 degrees Celsius, the top wind must be released to cool down and change the air temperature. At night, the temperature is controlled at 14 degrees Celsius or above, which is advantageous to pollination and fertilization, and increase the fruit setting rate.
Berry swells until the berry matures, outside the shed temperature begins to rise, the daytime temperature in the shed rises quickly, the temperature in the shed during the day can be controlled between 28~32 degrees Celsius, exceed 32 degrees Celsius to carry out the top outlet vent. The high temperature at the ripening phase of the berries during the ripening period is not conducive to the berry coloring and the temperature of about 15 degrees Celsius is favorable to the berry coloring.
The correct position of the air outlet is set in the upper and lower part of the greenhouse. During the early period of the grape, the air must be released from the top. Because the hot air in the greenhouse escapes, the temperature in the greenhouse decreases, and the cold air incurs a buffering distance, so as not to cause the shed. The internal temperature fluctuates violently.
When the air is released later, the bottom and top vents are opened, hot air escapes from the top, and cold air enters from the bottom to form the air flow. The cooling rate is fast, and the carbon dioxide gas in the shed is also faster.
3.3 Temperature Control and Irrigation During the period from the germination of the grape buds to the pre-flowering period, the humidity in the greenhouse can be relatively high, and the relative humidity is preferably 70% to 80%. The relative humidity during flowering should be controlled between 60% and 65%. High humidity is not conducive to anther cracking and loose powder; too low humidity can cause the crown to fall off easily.
The greenhouses must be sealed with frozen water before they pass winter. After the greenhouses are thawed, they are poured with water for the first time. When the buds are sprouting, they are poured with water for the second time. When individual flowers are opened, they are poured for the third time. Water is used to close the ground after the watering. , can increase the temperature, but also reduce the evaporation of moisture to reduce the humidity inside the greenhouse. After Xie Hua spent the 4th round of pouring water, Xie Hua spent 20 days to water the 5th round of water, and the berries softened before pouring the last 1 round of water.
3.4 Fertilizer and Gas Regulation The base fertilizer of greenhouse vines is generally applied in October. The main organic fertilizer is fully decomposed, with a dosage of 4,000 to 5,000 kilograms per 667 square meters, plus an appropriate amount of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and trace fertilizer.
After top dressing, there are the following periods during the top dressing: the first top dressing is in the budding stage, applying 50 kg of Sanyuan compound fertilizer per 667 square meters. Spray fertilizer 2 to 3 times before flowering, spray 0.2% ~ 0.3% of urea or potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Xiehua combined with water, spraying 50 kg of urea per 667 square meters. From late April to early May, 50 kg of potassium sulfate was applied per 667 square meters. The berries matured from the swell of the berries, and the leaves were sprayed with rare earth microelements and photosynthetic microelements 2 or 3 times.
3.5 Flower and Fruit Management In order to obtain large, good-looking grapes, it is necessary to control the load and the number of grains per ear. There are too many ears, the yield is too high, and the fruit is not easy to be colored; the number of ears is appropriate to ensure the production of larger fruit.
Results The length of shoots reaching 20 cm can be eliminated before flowering. In general, each fruit branch leaves one ear, a few strong branches leave two ears, and weak branches leave no ear, and the yield is controlled at about 2000 kg. About one-fourth or one-fifth of the total length of the inflorescence was removed with a finger about one week before flowering, and the number of grains was reduced to reduce the number of fruit grains. The seedless fruit can be obtained by spraying or soaking the ears 2 times with 25 mg of gibberellin 10 to 20 days after flowering and flowering.

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