The black bear, commonly known as the "black box", is a large mammal of the order Carnivora, Ursidae, and Black Bear, and is a national second-class protected animal. Its bile is widely used, is the raw material of more than 60 kinds of proprietary Chinese medicines, and is made into wine, beverage, cosmetics and other health care series of deep-processed products, and is in short supply of tight medicine. China bear artificial breeding and living bile extraction technology is relatively mature, is as follows.
1 Biological characteristics
1.1 Morphological characteristics Adult live bears typically weigh 130-250 kg, body length 1.5-1.7 m, shoulder height 65-80 cm, and tail length 10-16 cm. The body was black with a brown, brown and brown face, and white mandibles. The chest had obvious inverted "human" shape white spots. The body is hypertrophic, the head is wide, the kiss is short, and the ears are short and round. The limbs are stout, and the front and rear limbs have five claws.
1.2 Living habits In the wild, people often live in the caves or big tree caves in the mountains in the summer, and move to the lower places in the winter without fixed nests. In addition to the mating season, it is generally active during the day and rest at night. Walking upright, slow movements, good swimming, climbing trees. Food habits are mixed, staple foods such as tender grass, roots, wild fruits and other plant foods; like to eat honey, small mammals and eggs, but also eat insects or prey on fish, shrimp, "winter" (constipation from November to next year) Usually do not eat during the period.
1.3 Reproduction characteristics 4 to 5 years of age are mature, 5 to 6 years old into the reproductive period. During the period of estrus in June-August, the duration of estrus is 7-10 days. During the period of pregnancy, 6-8 months, 1 to 3 litters per litter and 6 months of lactation. About 15 years old is fully mature and has a life span of 30-40 years.
2 Artificial breeding techniques
2.1 Construction of a bear house and production of feeding equipment
2.1.1 The cage is made of steel bars of No. 12 to No. 14 and is made of 3.532m cages. The edges of the cage are made of 5050mm angle steel welded and the spacing between the bars is 10 to 15cm. The floor is slightly dense and the front door is left. The cage is placed in a sturdy enclosure, 60 cm above the ground. One bear per cage.
2.1.2 Fences and sports cages. There are special sidewalks outside the cages, fences or masonry walls, and a playground surrounded by wire mesh. The area is more than 10 square meters.
2.1.3 The trough and drinking trough are made of 5mm thick aluminum plate or iron plate. The length is 20 wide and 15 height is 12cm, and the slope on the side of feeding is maintained.
2.2 Common Feeds, Formulas, and Feeds Common feeds include compound and green feed. The ingredients are made from corn flour, wheat bran, fish meal, bean cake, bone meal, salt, and multivitamins; green fodder includes cabbage, pumpkin, carrot, and pasture. Feed reference recipes for each period: 1) 12% animal feed, 75% corn food, 7% fruit and vegetable, and 6% other during pregnancy. 2 10% of animal feeds during lactation, 79% of grain feed, 5% of fruits and vegetables, and 6% of other fruits. 3 Take 40.58% of corn flour, 4% of wheat bran, 35% of bean cake, 6% of meat powder, 11% of soybean milk powder, 2.8% of calcium hydrogen phosphate, 0.5% of salt, and 0.065% of additive. 4 50% of corn during the growth period, 10% of sorghum, 10% of rice, 15% of soybean, 5% of wheat, 5% of fish meal or cocoon, and 5% of bone meal. More than 55kg Aberdeen bear corn flour 50%, rice flour 16%, soybean flour (fried) 20%, bone meal 3%, milk powder 10%, salt 1% and amount of complex vitamins. More than 610kg bear corn powder 50%, wheat bran 20%, fish meal or cocoon 15%, bean cake or peanut cake 10%, bone meal 3%, salt 1%, auxin and multivitamin amount. Feeding amount is (every day) 1 0.75 to 1.5 kg of fine material during winter break, 0.5 to 0.75 kg of green feed, and 100 to 150 g of animal feed. From July to July, 2.5 to 3 kg of concentrate material, 0.25 to 0.5 kg of green feed, 0.5 to 1 kg of juicy material, and 120 to 180 g of animal feed. 38 to October refined material 3.5 ~ 4kg, green feed 0.25 ~ 0.5kg, animal feed 0.25kg. Feed 3 times a day and bear more than 4 times.
2.3 Feeding Management Points
2.3.1 adult bear (3 years old or older) 1 breeding period from May to August each year. Bears' appetite decreased, food intake decreased significantly, wildness increased, and the weather was hot, and estrus was highly consumed. Therefore, the diet should be palatable, digestible and rich in protein. The female bear should also supply enough honey, ants, moss and its by-products (3 to 5 g per day). Breeders should not be randomly approached to prevent wounding. When mating, select male and female bears that are physically strong, healthy, disease-free, with obvious gender characteristics, strong fertility, good family lineage, far blood lineage, similar body size, high degree of artificial domestication, and gentle and easy management. Normally, the natural mating method is used. The male bear and the female bear are placed in a circle in a ratio of 1:2 to 4, and the male bear is isolated after mating. 2 During the pregnancy, supply high-quality feed and gradually increase the amount of feed and green feed. Soymilk, fresh milk or milk powder should be provided before labor and moved to the delivery room for production. Keep the farm quiet and clean. 3 litters 1 to 3 months of litter each year during lactation. Once the abdominal circumference of the pregnant female bear is found to be significantly increased, the operation is slow and careful, the litter is removed, the food intake suddenly decreases or the food is not rested, and restlessness is needed. Floss nest. Pay attention to keeping the delivery room quiet and strictly forbidden to visit. Give less or no feed within 1 week after childbirth so that the mother bear can better care for the young. After farrowing until weaning, the delivery room does not have to be cleaned. Feed, drinking utensils can not have perfume, soap and other odors, so as not to cause abandonment or eating Aberdeen. 4 The difference between the weight, body type, feed, feeding level, season, sex, and the way of taking gallbladder was taken for bile-bearing bears at the time of bile drainage. Each day, 70 to 250 mL of bile can be drained. Must provide a rich animal and plant protein feed, add substances conducive to hepatic metabolism and deoxycholic acid production. To prevent wound infection and inflammation of the gallbladder, keep the temperature of the housing constant (10-30Â°C).
2.3.2 Aberdeen bear (0 to 6 months of age) In addition to feeding breast milk, it is necessary to supplement high-energy, high-protein feeds that are easily digested and used as soon as possible, and to supply fruits and green feed in appropriate amounts. When feeding, 1 bear and 1 trough, to avoid grabbing food, eating uneven. In the case of mother bears without milk or abandoned, artificial breastfeeding is required.
2.3.3 Young bears (6 months to 3 years old) Bears grow extremely fast, especially around the age of 1.5, their physiological functions tend to be perfect, and their resilience to disease resistance and environmental changes is strong. They are bile-sucking, bile-adjusting, and training. The most suitable time for domestication. In this period, the population should be reduced and reduced, and the combatants should be kept separately.
3 Living bile technology
3.1 Surgical equipment and drugs Drainage catheters are generally made of sacral ducts and can be made of materials such as silicone, latex, plastic or metal. Drainage tube protectors are connected by a thin iron hinge to make a bear-type iron vest. The back is open and fixed belts are placed on both sides. A metal box is welded to the front of the vest for placement in the bile reservoir. The inner layer of the vest is covered with leather or artificial leather to prevent the wear of bear skin. The bile reservoir is made of plastic bags (bottles), blood transfusion bags, etc. There are 3 interfaces on the bile reservoir, which are connected to the gallbladder cannula, the exhaust tube, and the bile extraction tube. The narcotic drug atropine (3 mL per 100 kg body weight), "846" mixture (2 to 5 mL per 100 kg body weight). Ketamine (0.7-1.0 g per 100 kg body weight) can also be used in combination with Jinglingling (0.5-0.7 g per 100 kg body weight). Others include conventional surgical instruments and disinfection antiseptics, antibiotics, and emergency medicine.
3.2 Preoperative preparation surgery is generally selected in the winter and spring morning, stop feeding the day before surgery to ensure drinking water. After weighing and routine physical anesthesia, the bears were moved to the operating table and supine Baoding. In the area of â€‹â€‹the bear's sword-shaped cartilage, about 3 cm from the xiphoid process and 2 cm from the right side of the midline of the abdomen, the starting point of the incision was 12 to 15 cm long. After partial shearing and disinfection, cover the wounded towel and prepare for surgery.
3.3 Surgical methods The abdomen was incised and the surgeon extended his hand into the abdominal cavity to find the gallbladder under the edge of the liver and carefully pulled to the site of the abdominal wall incision. Disinfect the wet gauze around the gallbladder. Extract some bile from the bottom of the gallbladder with a syringe. Make a small incision in this area (the size of the incision is suitable for catheter insertion, usually 1 to 2 cm). The disinfected catheter tip was inserted into the gallbladder through a small incision, the gallbladder wall was sutured at both ends of the incision, and a serosa muscularis smoke suture was made around the catheter. Wash the gallbladder with saline, and check the gallbladder when it does not leak back into the abdominal cavity. A small skin incision of 2 cm was made approximately 3 cm to the right of the abdominal wall incision, and the tail of the catheter was pulled out at this incision. The catheter was fixed in 3 layers: the peritoneum and muscle were sutured in the large incision; the catheter was fixed sutured at the small incision subcutaneously; the cigarette incision was made at the small incision. After the catheter was fixed, the operative area was flushed with saline and the abdominal cavity was closed. When the raccoon is not yet awake, the gallbladder is repeatedly washed with saline until no blood clots are left in the discharge. The bear was put on an iron vest. The gallbladder catheter was connected to the reservoir. The exhaust pipe and the bile suction tube were connected to the reservoir. The mouth of the suction tube was closed and the iron vest was placed in the iron box. The exhaust pipe extends between the vest and the coat to the bear's back and is fixed to the vest. Tighten the back strap, close the iron box and insert the bear into the cage.
3.4 Post-care After the bear is completely awake, she can be given drinking water and semi-liquid food, and then transferred to normal feeding on the third day after operation. Postoperatively, penicillin and streptomycin were administered intramuscularly twice a day for 5 to 7 days. Within 2 weeks after surgery, the gallbladder was flushed with penicillin physiological saline once every 3 days and then flushed every 2 weeks to prevent gallbladder inflammation. Replace the reservoir after each flush.
3.5 Collecting and Processing Bile When collecting bile, rush the bear to the side of the cage, open the tin box, remove the suction tube seal, and aspirate the bile with a sterile syringe. After the pumping is completed, the suction nozzle is closed, the reservoir is placed in a tin box, and a good iron box is inserted. Collect 1 time each morning before feeding in the morning and at night. The collected bile should be processed into dried products in a timely manner: The fresh bile is placed in a container and dried in a constant temperature drying oven, and the temperature of the drying oven is controlled at 40-45Â°C. The dry product was stored in a brown bottle sealed and protected from light.
Author: Department of Animal Husbandry, Wuhan Agricultural University
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