Codonopsis cultivation techniques

Codonopsis is a dry root of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. With Buzhongyiqi, Yixueshengjin and other functions. It is mainly produced in Shanxi, Hebei, and Northeastern provinces, and is famous for the Shanxi Luan party. Now Shandong, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu and other provinces have introduced cultivation. (-) Morphological characteristics Perennial grass rattan. The entire crop breaks the mask white milk and has a special odor. The roots are cylindrical, less branched, and fleshy, with a pale yellow to brown surface, with fine rings on the upper part and sparsely long lenticels on the lower part. Root enlargement, with a majority of nodular scars, commonly known as "Lion Pan head." Stems more slender, young parts with fine white hair. Leaves alternate, with opposite or false leaves, leaves ovate or broadly ovate, base subcordate, hairy on both surfaces, entire or shallowly undulate. Flowers solitary, axillary; calyx 5-lobed, green, corolla campanulate, 5-lobed, yellowish green with purple patches. Capsule conical; seeds numerous, small, elliptic, tan, glossy. Flowering from August to October, fruiting from September to October. (B) growth habits Codonopsis cool and humid climate, cold, avoid high-temperature water, seedling Xiyin afraid of exposure, adult stage hi light. Seeds can germinate at temperatures above 10°C, and the optimum temperature for germination is 18-20°C. The germination rate of fresh seeds can reach more than 85%, but the seed development rate is very low every other year, or even completely lose the germination rate, so the Chen seeds are not suitable for seeding. (III) Cultivation Techniques 1. Soils with deep soil and well-drained, humus-rich sandy loam should be selected for site selection and site preparation. Low-lying land, clay, and saline land are not suitable for planting. Semi-yin and half-yang should be selected for the nursery, and it should be close to the water source. Each year, about 2000 kg of manure per acre is applied to the manure, then the ploughing is performed, and the pounding is finished and a 1.2 m wide raft is made. Planting sites should be selected in the sunny place, enough base fertilizer, apply fertilizer about 3,000 kilograms per acre, and add a little phosphorus, potash fertilizer, applied deep plowing 30 cm, fine leveling, made l. 2 meters wide flat. 2. Breeding methods use seeds to reproduce, often using seedling transplanting, and less use of live broadcast. (1) Seedlings are usually planted before the rainy season of July-August or before the winter season, and spring sowing, drilling or sowing may also be used in areas with irrigation conditions. In order to germinate the seeds early, use 40-50°C warm water and add seeds while stirring. When the water temperature and hand temperature are almost the same, put it in for 5 minutes. Then place the gauze bag, wash it several times with clean water, and then take the whole bag. Place in indoor sand piles at a temperature of 15-20°C. Rinse once every 3-4 hours with fresh water. Seed cracks can be planted after 5-6 days. Spreading: Spread the seeds evenly on the surface of the pods, cover with a little more thin soil to cover the seeds, then lightly suppress the seeds and the soil in order to facilitate the emergence of seedlings. Use 1 kg per acre. Drilling: Shallow ditching by 1 cm in a row at a distance of 10 cm, spreading the seed evenly in the ditch, and covering it with thin soil, using 0.6-0.8 kg per acre. After sowing, cover the surface with corn stalks, straw or pine branches and other moisturizing, after appropriate watering, and often keep the soil moist. Spring sowing, can cover the mulch to facilitate emergence. When the seedling height is about 5 cm, the covering is gradually peeled off. When the seedling height is about 10 cm, the seedlings are planted at a spacing of 2-3 cm. See the grass to remove, and appropriate control of water, should be a small amount of ground pouring. (2) One year after growth of transplanted seedlings, the seedlings were transplanted before budding before freezing in mid-October to November in early autumn, or after freezing in early March to mid-April to early April. On the whole rake, divide the groove with a spacing of 20-30 cm to a depth of 15-20 cm. The hill slope should be ditched along the slope, and the seedlings should be placed in a slope of 6-10 cm. 5 centimeters, about 30 kilograms per acre. 3. Field management (1) After cultivating and weeding, see the grass and remove it. The loose soil should be shallow and stop after ridge closure. (2) Generally, top dressing is not performed during top dressing. After transplanting, human feces and urine are usually applied one time before the scaffolding, and 1000-1500 kilograms per acre are applied. (3) Irrigation should be promptly filled with water after transplanting to prevent seedlings from dehydration and ensure seedling emergence. After survival, no irrigation or less irrigation is needed to prevent the seedlings from becoming leggy. Pay attention to drainage during the rainy season to prevent rot. (4) Stretching the stem of ginseng can reach more than 3 meters, so when the seedling height is 30 centimeters, it should be erected so that the vines can grow and grow, which will benefit the ventilation and light transmission, increase the photosynthesis area, and increase the disease resistance. Frames are made in situ, such as branches and bamboo poles. 4. Pest control (1) Rust frequently occurs in autumn and damages the leaves. Control methods: clean garden; early onset of spraying with 25% triadimefon 1000 times. (2) Root rot usually occurs when the soil is too wet and at high temperatures, and damages the roots. Control methods: rotation; remove diseased plants in a timely manner and disinfect the diseased points with lime powder; the onset period is watered with 50% thiophanate 800 times. (3) Aphids and red spiders damage leaves and buds. Control methods: 40% dimethoate emulsion 800 times spray can be used. In addition, there are still crickets, tigers and other root causes. (D) Harvesting and processing Generally, l-2 years after transplanting, it will be harvested when the autumn ground is withered. First cut the stem vines, and then dig out the roots, shake off the dirt, according to the size of the size of the air drying to a soft state, by hand Shun root grip or rubbing the wood after the sun, so repeated 3-4 times to dry. The dry rate is about 2:1. The products are thicker, tighter, softer and sweeter. (V) Seed-keeping techniques Although annual plants can flower and seed, but the seed quality is poor, and it is not suitable for planting, it is advisable to use seeds that are older than two years old for seeding. Normally, fruit matures from September to October when the fruit is yellow-white. When the seeds are light brown, they can be seeded. Due to different maturation of seeds, they can be harvested in batches in batches, dried and threshed, removed and stored in a dry and ventilated place. China Agricultural Network Editor

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