The epidemic of black pepper is commonly known as black embryo disease. It is the main disease in the production of chili peppers. With the continuous expansion of the protected area of â€‹â€‹pepper in our county, the occurrence of the epidemic of pepper is becoming more and more serious. In some years, the incidence rate can reach 70%-80%, and the yield loss is 50. %-80% of the total weight is completely eliminated, which greatly affects the economic interests of pepper farmers. 1. Harmful symptoms Peppers can develop throughout the growing period. At the seedling stage, the base of the stem is dark green, water-soaked, soft rot or hardened. Some stem bases are brown, ie, they are quenched at the seedling stage; stems and branches are infected, the lesions are initially immersed, and then the surrounding stems appear. With the expanded brown lesions, the diseased area is obviously shrunk, and branches above the diseased area quickly wither and become the devastating diseases in the production of chili peppers. 2. Transmission routes and disease conditions Phytophthora capsici has a wide range of infestation and can infect solanaceae, cucurbitaceae and other vegetables. The pathogenic bacteria mainly overwinters oospores and chlamydospores on sick bodies or soil and seeds. When the conditions are right, the pathogenic bacteria after winter pass the rain splash or irrigation water to the stem base, causing the disease. Repeated infections mainly originate from the sporangia produced by the disease and are transmitted by rainwater. The growth and development of germs is suitable for 30Â°C, the highest is 38Â°C, the lowest is 8Â°C, the field is 25-30Â°C, and the relative humidity is higher than 85%. After the heavy rain, the weather turned fine and the temperature rose sharply. More than 95% of soil moisture, from its near-ground humidity of 95% or more, last 4-6 hours, the bacteria that is completed infection, 2-3 days can occur for a generation, it has become a short onset cycle, rapid epidemic speed of the devastating disease . 3. Prevention and control methods 3.1 Strictly implement continuous cropping of pepper sore nightshade, preferably with leafy vegetables and onions, garlic, corn and root crops for more than 3 years. 3.2 Cleaning the pastoral crops The timely cleaning of the crops after harvest and the ploughing of the land will reduce the number of Phytophthora in the soil, completely remove the diseased bodies, and incinerate or bury them deeply. 3.3 The selection of disease-resistant varieties such as Da Yang Kok, Da Niu Kok, La Jiao Jiao No. 1 and so on. 3.4 Cultivation of age-appropriate seedlings Colonization age 80-100 days is appropriate. The standard of strong seedlings is 15-20 cm in plant height, 0.20 cm in stem diameter, 80% budding, and 3000-3500 planting acres, depending on the variety. Proper and close planting can improve ventilation and light transmission conditions and reduce field humidity. 3.5 Soil testing and formula fertilization Apply sufficient organic fertilizer, apply formula fertilization to avoid partial application of nitrogen fertilizer, increase application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, foliar spraying, strong and excellent, plant dynamics 2003, Lubang 98, Gaomei Shi et al. Fertilizers enhance plant resistance to disease. 3.6 Strengthen the field management Pepper enters the vigorous growth period to promote the attack and attack the fruit, from the hoe, the watering should be poured less frequently; The pepper is happy and afraid of high temperature, hi fat is afraid of fat burning, fertilization should be less and diligent. 3.7 Chemicals control 3.7.1 Seed treatment Use 10% formalin to soak seeds for 30 minutes to dip seed 5-10 cm, remove, rinse, germinate and sow. 3.7.2 seedbed treatment with green enjoy a 3000-4000 times before sowing seedlings leaching planting, repeat the use of drugs before transplanting 1 per square meter with 1 gram green enjoy one. 3.7.3 Spraying and Irrigation After Planting In the early stages of plant onset, 40% diethylphosphorus aluminum wettable powder 500 times, 25% metalaxyl 500 times, and 72.20% polycrine 600 times liquid were used. 50% Amethyst copper wettable powder 800 times liquid, 69% Ankang manganese zinc wettable agent spray and irrigate and use, each watering acres sprinkled 96% of copper sulfate 3 kg, control effect is obvious. 3.7.4 The winter production of greenhouses, especially in rainy days, can be controlled by chitosan aerosols to prevent and control the hot pepper diseases.
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