1, temperature and sunshine
In green leafy vegetables, spinach has a strong cold-tolerance, and adult plants can safely pass through the winter in open areas in areas where the minimum winter temperature is about -10Â°C. In areas north of North China, Northeast China, and northwest China, where the average winter minimum temperature is lower than -10Â°C, wind barriers or non-woven cover the ground can also be used for wintering in open areas. Cold-resistant varieties. Plants with 4 to 6 true leaves can withstand short-term low temperatures of -30Â°C; even at low temperatures of -40Â°C, only the outer leaves are frozen and yellow, and roots and shoots are not damaged. There are only 1 to 2 true leaf seedlings and the plants that will be twitched, and the cold resistance is poor.
The lowest temperature for spinach seed germination is 4Â°C, and the optimum temperature is 15~20Â°C. Germination at 4 days under proper temperature, high-quality seeds, germination rate of more than 90% and then increase in temperature, germination rate decreased, the number of germination days increased; 35 Â°C, the germination rate of less than 20%. Therefore, when seeds are planted in the hot season, seeds must be soaked and germinated beforehand in a cool environment.
Spinach is a typical long-day vegetable, and it quickly differentiates its buds and twitches during the long cultivation season. For example, in the Guanzhong area of â€‹â€‹Shaanxi province, â€œFrench spinachâ€ was sown from June to July, and flower buds were differentiated 17-19 days after sowing. During this period, the sunshine duration is 14-15 hours and the daily average temperature is 24.6-24.9Â°C. It can be seen that the main condition for flower bud differentiation in spinach is long daylight. Under long-day conditions, flower buds can be differentiated even if they are not subjected to low temperatures. In other words, under long-day conditions, low temperatures are not essential for the differentiation of spinach flower buds. However, when the sunshine duration is shortened to less than 12 hours, the seeds undergo a low temperature (2Â°C) treatment, and the flower bud differentiation period is significantly earlier than the seeds without cryogenic treatment. This shows that in the short-day conditions, low temperature has the effect of promoting flower bud differentiation. This point has a guiding significance for how to promote flower bud differentiation when spinach is harvested in autumn.
After floral bud differentiation, the development, convulsions and flowering of flower organs are all accelerated with the increase of temperature and the length of sunshine.
According to the influence of temperature and sunshine time on vegetative growth and reproductive growth of spinach, the principle for determining the appropriate sowing date should be: after sowing, the growing period of basal leaves should be within the temperature range of 20-25Â°C. , For more leaves and more hypertrophic leaves; after flower bud differentiation, the temperature decreases, the duration of sunshine shortens, so that the basal leaves have a longer growth period, thereby increasing the weight of a single plant.
2. The edible part of the water spinach is a tender and juicy leaf. Its water content is about 92%. With a large number of plants per unit area, the consumption of water is large, so the requirement for water is relatively high. In the environment where the relative humidity is 80% to 90% and the soil moisture content is 18% to 20%, the leaves grow vigorously and their quality is soft. Dry air and soil make the leaves grow slowly, the tissues are aged, the fibers increase, and the quality decreases. In particular, during periods of high temperatures and long days of sunshine, water shortages make the vegetative organs poorly developed, but the development of flower buds predominates, thereby accelerating twitching, and the number of male plants exceeds that of female plants, which also adversely affects spinach collection.
3. Soil spinach requires slightly acidic to neutral soil. In acidic soils, the growth is slow, when the leaves become yellow in severity, the leaves become hard, dull, and do not stretch. Therefore, soil with too high soil acidity should be treated with lime or ash to reduce acidity. In 4, nutrition to ensure the normal growth of spinach, the need to use nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and three elements of the fertilizer. On this basis, special attention should be paid to the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. When the nitrogen fertilizer is sufficient, the leaves grow vigorously, which can not only increase the yield, enhance the quality, but also extend the supply period. In the absence of nitrogen, the plants are short, the leaves are yellow, the leaves are small and thin, and the fibers are numerous, and it is easy to cause early convulsions. At present, there is a tendency to ignore phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and apply nitrogen fertilizers. Someone thinks that nitrogen fertilizer is long-leaved, so only use nitrogen fertilizer as top dressing. Experiments showed that compared with spinach that applied N, P and K fertilizers, spinach only applied nitrogen fertilizer had a 33.3% reduction in plant height and a 43.5% reduction in plant weight. Spinach is planted in a boron-deficient field. The heart is curled, chlorogenic, and the plants are short. When borax is applied, it can be applied at a rate of 0.5-0.75 kilograms per acre, or a solution of water can be added to spray the foliage to prevent boron deficiency. Phenomenon In the production practice, spinach grows well when bitter water (water containing potassium, sodium, calcium, and other salts) is poured into spinach. This is because the acidity of the large soil is reduced after pouring it with bitter water containing alkaline salts. However, the ability of spinach to tolerate alkali is also relatively weak. In alkaline soils, the growth is poor and the yield is reduced.
Spinach requirements for soil properties are not strict, sandy loam, loam and clay loam can be cultivated, according to different cultivation seasons to select the appropriate soil. For example, for the purpose of the spring morning market, the sandy loam soil can be planted so that the ground temperature rises quickly in the early spring, and the spinach returns green and fast after winter, and can be harvested early; when the purpose of high yield is to select water, the fertility is better. Loam or clay loam
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