Pasture planter briefing and development suggestions

According to statistics, 90% of the country's natural pastures are in degradation. The severely degraded grassland area amounts to 4.8 million hm2. An effective way to solve the sustainable development of grass resources in China is to improve natural grassland and establish artificial grassland. The trial study of pasture planters should be on the agenda. 1 Foreign pasture planters with foreign countries, foreign machinery, there are two methods of planting pasture: one is to establish artificial planting grassland, using the same process with the cultivation of crops: plow, hoe, sowing, fertilization, cultivator, watering planting excellent grass, so that grassland It is continuously updated; the other is to improve the natural degraded grassland by replenishing slashes, that is, to cut roots, loosen soil, sow, and fertilize the natural grassland that does not rip the original vegetation. 1.1 Pasture planter for artificial planting grassland Because the planting process of artificial planting grassland and farmland is basically the same, in foreign countries, the pasture planters used for artificial planting of pasture are mostly common with agricultural planters, and some agricultural planters are replaced with special open trenches. Plants and seeders can sow pasture. Most of these seeders are technologically advanced and well-manufactured, and the seeding rate and seeding depth are very precise to meet the pasture planting requirements. For example, the SS8 seeder produced by American Baililing Co., Ltd. can plant seeds such as alfalfa and Lotus root, and the minimum seeding rate can be adjusted to 0.6kg/hm2, and the seeding depth can be accurately maintained at 1.2cm. In 2001, Beijing Shunyi District had already introduced one and it was in good condition. The seeder's domestic price is 130,000 yuan each. 1.2 The improvement of natural degraded grassland for pasture planters used in natural degraded pastures. Countries generally use special no-tillage planters for reseeding the grasslands. The seeding rate depends on the extent of degradation. The equipment operation process is: turf cut - loose soil - reseeding - repression cover soil. The 1100D grass planter produced by New Zealand's Eichesen Company uses disk knives and chisel-type spring teeth for the soil working parts. Under the action of the machine's gravity, the sharp blade of the disc knife cuts off the surface covering and roots, and cuts the soil. The layer forms a gully, and then the seed drill is formed by a chisel-shaped spring tooth opener. The machine's disc cutter single group mass 200kg, there is enough to cut off the top soil vegetation capacity. The planter was introduced into Dushan Grassland in Guizhou Province. The seeder was of good quality and reliable in use. In addition, a sward pasture reseeding machine was developed in Ukraine. The machine can be planted on a slope less than 35 grazing areas. 2 Domestic pasture planting and equipment profiles In recent years, in response to the degradation of natural grassland, China's grassland improvement and construction work has also made some progress. For example, from 1994-1999, two projects, “Planning and Application of Xinjiang Grassland Improvement Construction Machinery” and “Improvement of Mechanization Technology for High-quality, High-yield, and Efficient Grassland Construction”, were implemented in the natural degraded grassland in Yili Prefecture, with an area of ​​9266 hm2, yielding grass. Increase 2-3 times. With China’s accession to the “WTO” and the implementation of the Western Development Strategy, China’s grassland improvement and artificial planting of pastures have received unprecedented opportunities for development. The project of returning farmland to forests and grasslands in Xinjiang is planned. Within five years, 133,000 hectares of grassland will be returned each year, and a total of 667,000 hectares of artificial grassland will be built. In 2001, Xintian International Co., a subsidiary of Xintian International Co., Ltd., focused on the deep processing industry, organized farmer households to plant 苜蓿4000hm2 in the form of “company ten farmers”. Gansu Mogao Industrial Development Co., Ltd. is also building a planting base of 20,000 hm2. With the rapid expansion of pasture planting areas, the demand for pasture planters has soared. The research of pasture planting equipment in our country started relatively late. In particular, the pasture planter for artificial planting grassland started later, but some new machinery has emerged. 2.1 For the pasture planter used for artificial planting grassland, as in other countries, to establish artificial planting grassland, all the original vegetation must be ploughed, and the excellent pasture should be sown after leveling. There are few types of pasture sowing machines used for artificial grassland planting in China. The following types have been used in production: (1) 9SBY-3.6 type sowing grass seed sowing and sowing combination machine. The machine adopts a spreader disk driven by a permanent magnet DC motor, which can spread pasture seeds with good flowability and natural angle of repose. Its repressor adopts the advanced technology of the German roller drum roller compactor, and has a certain amount of soil filling and rolling. Repression function. This machine is equipped with a 13.2kW small four-wheel tractor with a working width of 3.6m and a productivity of 2-2.2hm2/h. The unit was developed by the Grassland Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and it has been produced in small batches in Inner Mongolia with good results. (2) 9MB-9 pasture planter. This machine is equipped with 11kW small four-wheel tractor, which can complete ditching, sowing, earth covering and repression at a time. The number of operations can be installed in 9 rows, 7 rows and 5 rows according to actual needs. The double rubber roll metering device used can basically meet the seeding requirements of grass and leguminous herbage seeds. Working width 1.35-1.75m; sowing depth 0.5-3.0cm; productivity 0.45-0.6hm2/h. The aircraft was developed by the Baicheng Prefecture Agricultural Mechanization Research Institute and passed the provincial appraisal. (3) The traditional wheat seed drill is replaced by a pasture planter modified from a small groove wheel seeder or a small hole seed meter. The planter is mainly used for the planting of alfalfa, although the performance indicators can not achieve pasture sowing requirements, but the use of low cost. In 2002, nearly 200 units were modified in Xinjiang alone. 2.2 Pasture sowing machine for natural degraded grassland The replenishing sowing machine used for natural grassland improvement in China is mostly developed by introducing, digesting, and absorbing foreign similar products. It can basically meet the needs of natural grassland improvement mechanization. The advanced technology and reliable use are as follows: (1) 9MSB-2.1 pasture no-tillage cultivator. The machine's soil working parts use disc cutters and loose soil shovels, and at the same time, replenishment of pasture (3 rows) and no-tillage (4 rows). Its metering device adopts advanced sponge friction disc type metering device, which has uniform and stable seeding capacity, can broadcast seeds of various shapes, and can also sow seeds with poorly flowing elymus and old rye seeds. At the same time, a continuously variable transmission is used to adjust the seeding capacity to meet the requirements for different seed seeding rates. This machine is equipped with a 50kW tractor, and has a working width of 2.1m and a working line of 7 lines. It was developed by the Institute of Mechanization of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in Inner Mongolia in 2001. (2) 9MSB-2.1 grassland zero-tillage pine seeding unit. The machine uses a chisel-shaped loose soil shovel to loosen the soil. Then six six-beds are pressed out of six 10cm wide wheels. The seeding tube is then used to sow the seeds, and the soil is then covered with soil-covered chains. Its seeding system adopts the type of outer sheave wheel. There are two kinds of sheave wheels, the size of which is used to broadcast undergraduate and leguminous grass species. This machine is equipped with a 40kW tractor, with a working width of 2.1m and a working line of 6 lines. It was developed and produced by the Grassland Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. In 2001, it was more than 100 units in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Sales Zone. (3) 91BS-2.4 type grassland replenishing seeder. This machine is a new generation of products developed on the basis of Type 91BS-2.1 of the Agricultural Mechanization Institute of Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Its soil working parts use disc cutters and large spring straight plough cutters, equipped with two kinds of seed boxes and two seeding devices. That is, a seed-discharging device adopts oblique external groove seeding device for the seeding of grass seeds (such as bromegrass, old mulberry, Elymus, etc.); the other seeding device is used straight. The multi-function metering device for grooved wheels is used for seeding leguminous grass seeds (such as grasshoppers, grasshoppers, etc.). During operation, the disc cutter cuts the turf by gravity, and the large spring straight plough cutter opens the seed furrow in the kerf. After sowing, the large chain loops cover the soil to cover the soil and complete the sowing. The machine is equipped with a 50kW tractor and has a working width of 2.4m. The number of operating lines is 8 lines or 16 lines. At present, the aircraft has completed the pilot test. 3 The problems existing in our pasture planters and suggestions The types, functions and technical performances of our country's pasture planting tools are quite different from those of similar foreign products. The most important gap is in the seeder and opener of pasture seeders. . Forage legume seeds (such as alfalfa and lotus root) are mostly small in size and relatively heavy in grain weight, so they have good fluidity. The use of common seeding devices has resulted in serious seed leakage and difficult control of sowing volume. Gramine grass seed (such as old horny wheat, Elymus, etc.) has poor fluidity, and it is easy to overhead, so it is difficult to ensure the uniformity of seeding. Abroad, the grain planter used for farmland is also used for seeding of pasture seeds because of its advanced material selection and advanced manufacturing technology. In addition, some advanced precision seed metering devices, such as air flow metering devices and sponge friction disk metering devices, are also commonly used for seeding pasture seeds. In addition to the conventional small-slot wheel seed metering device, the seed metering device for sowing grass seeds in China has also introduced some foreign related technologies and developed some advanced seed metering devices, such as sponge friction disc type metering device, which is reliable. Sex needs to be further improved. In addition to the seeding device, the opener is also an important component that affects its performance. Seed emergence of pasture seed is greatly influenced by its seeding depth. The consistency of the ditch depth is an important factor to guarantee the success of pasture sowing. At present, domestic pasture planters have very little control over the depth of sowing. To sum up, we have put forward the following suggestions and opinions on how to develop our pasture planting equipment. (1) Modify the existing agricultural seeder so that it can adapt to sowing seed. At present, the vast majority of grasshoppers are planted. The existing 10-row and 24-row wheat seeder sowing rakes with small-slot wheel metering devices or small-spot-eye metering devices can not fully meet the requirements for sorghum sowing, but can promptly alleviate the shortage of artificial planter pasture planters. problem. (2) Intensify the development of a forage planter with wide adaptability and excellent performance in China. (3) Attach importance to the processing of pasture seeds. Pasture seeds that have been processed (cleaned, awned, fleece, grading, and pelleted) are more conducive to sowing and emergence. (4) To develop an experimental method for no-tillage reseeding as soon as possible.

A seedbed or seedling bed is the local soil environment in which seeds are planted. Often it comprises not only the soil but also a specially prepared cold frame, hotbed or raised bed used to grow the seedlings in a controlled environment into larger young plants before transplanting them into a garden or field. A seedling bed is used to increase the number of seeds that germinate.

Greenhouse Seedling Bed

Greenhouse Seedling Bed,Stainless Greenhouse Seedling Bed,Greenhouse Seedling Nursery Bed