The breeding of tilapia requires no artificial aspiration and water stimulation. As long as the water temperature is stable above 20Â°C, mature male and female broodstock can be naturally propagated by being placed in the same breeding pond. When the water temperature is stable at 25-29Â°C, fry can be propagated every 30-50 days. In southern China, tilapia usually grows five to six times a year, and it can breed all year round under controlled temperature conditions.
Reproductive pool conditions
1. Location The breeding pond should be selected near the water source, convenient for injection and drainage, quiet in the environment, and convenient for transportation. It is better to choose a pond that is close to the broodstock during the winter and winter to reduce the damage caused by the broodstock.
2, area and water level breeding pond area is generally 2-6 acres is appropriate, the area is too large is not conducive to the collection of fry, the area is too small, the water quality is difficult to control, the water temperature changes are also more obvious, the bromus when the water level was controlled at 1.4 -1.5 Meter room. When the broodstock is breeding, the water level should be reduced to 0.8 - 1.2 meters, which can be appropriately increased to 1.2 - 1.4 meters during the summer high temperatures.
3. The pool-shaped and bottom-mass shaped pools should be rectangular pools with long east-west and north-south widths. There should be shallow-water beaches along the pool to facilitate broodstock production. The bottom should be flat or slightly pot-shaped. Sandy soil is better. There must be no weeds on the shallow edge of the pond, otherwise it is not conducive to the collection of fry.
Breeding pond disinfection and disinfection
Before the broodstock enters the pool, the breeding ponds must be cleaned and disinfected. When clearing, pool water must be drained to remove miscellaneous fish and remove weeds and debris from the bottom of the pond, especially the weeds within 1.6 meters from the bottom of the pond to the pond. And strictly check the edge of the pond, pond, the drainage filter is strong, it is best to let the bottom of the sun exposure to cracks. 10-15 days before the broodstock enters the pool, return water 10-20 cm, and then use drugs to poison ponds. Commonly used drugs include tea pods, bleaching powder and quicklime. Among them, quicklime and samovar have the best effect. The amount of tea pods is 40-50 kg/mu, quick lime is 150-200 kg/mu, and bleach is 15-20 kg/mu (30% available chlorine).
Cultivating water quality
After several days of disinfection, use a net to pull the net to check if the inside of the tank has been disinfected. After confirming that there are no other miscellaneous fish or debris in the breeding pond, return the water (When the water enters the inlet, it must be filtered with a dense mesh, and Regularly inspect and clean the dense mesh), apply basal fertilizer, apply 300-600 kg of fermented manure or 500-800 kg of green manure per acre, and control the water quality to be tea green or yellowish-green (such as applying green manure, always turn and wait until all rot. After the straw is picked up and sterilized for 7-10 days, the fish can be tested to release the fish).
1, the choice of broodstock tilapia used as a parent, must be purebred, in the same population should choose fast-growing, larger individuals, the general overwintering species should be more than 250 grams, the male is slightly larger, stay large small. At the time of selection, the selected parents required high flesh thickness, complete scales, fins, bright luster, clear markings, no disease, no injury, neat body shape, and external morphology conforming to the taxonomic criteria.
2. When the broodstock is placed in the breeding pool, the water temperature should be stable at 20Â°C or above. In the Guangdong region, the pairing seedlings can generally be produced in the middle or late March. Due to the establishment of greenhouses and temperature control facilities, I can produce seedlings in mid-February. The stocking of broodstock should be done on a sunny day and the quantity should be sufficient at a time. The broodstock should be disinfected before entering the pond, and soaked in broodstock for 3 to 5 minutes before putting into the breeding pool. The operation of the broodstock should be carried out lightly to minimize the damage to the fish and shorten the recovery time of the broodstock. Production and seedlings. After all the broodstock enter the pond, chlorine dioxide at a concentration of 0.3 ppm is used to disinfect the broodstock to prevent wound infection and hydromycosis.
3, stocking density and male and female ratio Broodstock stocking density should be determined according to the pool dissolved oxygen capacity, pond conditions, production quantity to determine, in the normal temperature pool, according to 2000 cubic meters (about 3 acres) of water with 1.5-2.2 kilowatts aerator Taiwan, stocking density up to 1500-2000 tail / mu, specifications 250-300 grams, in the absence of oxygen-enhanced equipment, 300-500 grams of broodstock can be placed per acre 600-800 tail, sooner or later have a plastic film cover of the water Incubation aeration tanks, broodstock stocking density of 1000-1200 tail, specifications for 250-300 grams.
When stocking must be properly controlled male and female ratio, according to our production experience for several years, male and female ratio to 2.5:1-4:1 seedling volume is more ideal, because the male fish is more allocated, if there is not enough feed will A large number of fish fry, seriously affect the amount of seedlings.
Cultivate and manage
After prolonged wintering, the broodstock has a weak constitution and poor gonadal development and must be strengthened. Feeding methods for adult fish combined with fertilization and feeding are used to intensify cultivation. Feeding and fertilization should be determined according to the weather and broodstock feeding conditions. Daily feeding amount is 3%-4% of pond broodstock weight, in order to promote gonad development and maturation as soon as possible. , feeding requirements of refined, green feed combination, diversification, so that nutrition is comprehensive. The broodstock concentrate protein content should be more than 35%, commonly used diets are soybean meal, fish meal, corn meal, peanut meal, yellow powder as broodstock feed, it is best to self-made into pellets after the purchase of raw materials.
After entering the pond, the pro-fish must adhere to the early, middle and evening patrol ponds to timely fish out the frog eggs and kill predators. In particular, it is necessary to strengthen the management of water quality. When the water is too thick or shows a brownish color, effective measures must be taken promptly. , To replace some of the new water or splash lime, in order to prevent the deterioration of water quality due to the parents of the lack of oxygen floating head and flooding pond caused losses. Adhere to regularly sterilize the breeding ponds and regulate water quality. Generally, lime is applied once every half month, and the amount is controlled at 10-15 kg per mu. Regularly apply some microbial preparations to change the microbial communities in the pond and improve the aquatic environment.
1. When the temperature of the broodstock is raised to 22Â°C, the mature broodstock will begin to heat and spawn. The incubation of the fertilized eggs and the fry feeding are carried out in the female's mouth at a water temperature of 25Â°C. About 5-6 days after hatching, the membrane hatches at 4-5 days at 28-30 Â°C. From the brood estrus spawning to the fry release from the mother, the whole process takes about 10-15 days. Therefore, the broodstock should be maintained after 10 days of stocking. Take a closer look at the pool every day to see if there are any fish fry activities, so that the seedlings can be harvested in time to increase the seedling rate.
2. The seedlings are usually taken in the morning or in the evening. A better method is to use hand-operated nets, small trawls, fishing around the pond, raising once every 3-4 meters, and raising the seedlings into cages. Repeatedly, should be fishing 4-5 times a day so that every day as much as possible to clean the seedlings. The movement should be light when the seedlings are to be collected. After a certain amount has been collected, the seedlings can be counted and transferred to the cultivation pond and transferred to the fry cultivation stage.
Since tilapia has habits of mutual sustenance at the seedling stage, fry 1.5 cm in length has been able to sap the seedlings that have just left the mother. In production, the seedlings can be combined with seedlings and seedlings. The eye nets, the sinkers on the bottom level should not be too heavy, so that broodstock can escape from the bottom of the net.
Several issues that must be noted
1. The temperature of the broodstock before the wintering pond is moved to the breeding pond, the overwintering pond should be cooled until the water temperature is equal to the outside world and the material is stopped and added to the new water within 3 days before exiting the pond. The operation must be careful when passing the pond to reduce the fish. Body injuries, because generally the water temperature is not high during this period, the broodstock wounds are extremely prone to hydromycosis, in addition to clear weather when the pool is removed, it must be disinfected before entering the breeding pond.
2, the quality of water quality pro-fish seedlings, water quality is a very critical link. Water quality can not be too fat or too thin, over-fat broodstock can easily lack of oxygen floating head; too thin is not conducive to the cultivation of parent and seedlings of open bait. Adjust the water quality, use quicklime regularly, change some of the old water frequently in the hot season, and inject new water. It is recommended to use some microbial agents to improve water quality and increase dissolved oxygen.
3, the other key link in the amount of broodstock seedlings is the bait. As a broodstock bait, we must achieve the quality of intensive cultivation, and we must be very clear about the ingredients contained in the feed, broodstock only absorb enough protein energy, in order to shorten the seedling interval, increase the number of seedlings and increase the emergence rate.
4. The separation of male and female tilapia during the high temperature period in summer has stopped the emergence of seedlings or reduced the emergence of seedlings. The seedlings are extremely difficult to collect. At this time, the male and female broodstock can be separated and isolated and cultured in ponds until the water temperature drops below 30Â°C. Pairing with seedlings is then carried out. The purpose of doing so is to be able to collect a group of more concentrated seedlings, which will facilitate seed breeding and wintering.
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