Spring cowpea cultivation techniques

Kidney beans are resistant to high temperatures and are resistant to drought. There are two types of kidney beans: long vines and short vines. The long pods of pods are tender, the meat is hypertrophic, the growth period is long, the yield is high, and the scaffolds are required; the vines with short vines are more branched, the collaterals are shorter, the scaffolds are not needed, and the yield is medium.
1, use fine varieties.
There are many types of cowpea varieties, and appropriate varieties should be selected according to climatic conditions, cultivation habits, planting seasons, and market requirements. The main varieties cultivated in the spring are phoenix 豇 555, 豇 特 早 30 30, 豇 绿 green, 豇 90, 豇 豇 豇 、 80, 早 60 60, etc. 2. Sowing Seedling Spring Bean commonly used for transplanting seedlings, not only can properly inhibit vegetative growth, To promote reproductive growth, early sowing, early harvest, and longer harvest time are also possible.
2.1 sowing time greenhouse cultivation sowing period is in late February, a small arch shed in early March, open cultivation and nursery in late March, live in mid-April. Use 2.5 kg per acre.
2.2 Cultivation facilities for nutrition, seedling, and seedling cultivation The seedlings can be sowed in advance with appropriate nutrition, and 4 parts of fully-composed organic fertilizer and 6 parts of vegetable garden soil are used. After being fully mixed and sifted, they are loaded into a nutrition bowl with an entrance diameter of 6 cm and a height of 8 cm. And neatly and neatly placed in a leveling seedbed. Soak the nutrient pods before sowing. After the water is soaked, soak 2 seeds per pod, then cover the nutrient soil 3 cm thick.
2.3 Weak root regeneration of jujube beans is weak, and we use live broadcast for cultivation. When sown in open field, the seeds are sown when the temperature rises above 20°C to increase the germination rate. When broadcast live, it is usually planted at a spacing of 25-30 centimeters by 65 centimeters, planted at a depth of 4-6 centimeters, with 3000-4,000 holes per acre, and 3-4 seeds per hole. After emergence, the seedlings will be weak, small and diseased. Leave 2-3 strains. After sowing in early spring, it should be covered with plastic film and a small shed. Generally, it can emerge in 4 days. Before the emergence of the temperature should be maintained 30-35 °C, water should not be too much to prevent the seeds rot. Immediately after emergence, the mulch film was removed, and the proper temperature was controlled at 25-30°C to keep the soil moist. 4 to 5 days before colonization, hardening the seedlings to enhance stress resistance. Seedbeds should not only prevent the soil from being excessive, but should not be overly watered, but should also prevent the seedbed from accumulating water.
3. Soil Selection Cowpeas are not strict with soil requirements, but in order to obtain high yields, sandy-loam soils that are slightly acidic and have not been cultivated for two years should be selected for planting. If the soil acidity is too high, the soil should be evenly spread on the surface after building. Apply lime to neutralize acidity. Plow the soil about 25 centimeters and build a trench to open the deep trenches to facilitate the reduction of stains.
4. The colonization period for planting cowpea should be determined according to the cultivation methods and reproductive indicators. Transplanting with seedlings is usually carried out on the first pair of true leaves before the opening of a hole to plant colonization, pouring water after planting, filling the planting hole.
5, field management
5.1 Fertilizer Water Management The principle of management of cowpea fertilizer and water is to prevent stems and leaves from becoming prolonged in the early stages and prevent premature aging in later stages. Generally, 2000 kg per hectare of composted organic fertilizer is used as basal fertilizer; 2 fertilizers are applied at the seedling stage, and 2.5 kg of urea is applied per acre; 3 times of top dressing is applied during flowering and pod dressing; 25% of NPK total amount per acre is applied. Compound fertilizer 10-12 kg. Seedlings should be properly controlled water, prevent stems and leaves to grow and reduce inflorescences; flowering and waterlogging period, more water, about 7 days to pour water, harvesting period combined with water chase fertilizer materials. Growing cowpeas throughout the summer, flowering and podging period, should pay attention to late dressing, to prevent premature degeneration of plant dehydration, the rain should be ruled out during the entire field, so as to avoid rot, fall leaves, falling flowers.
5.2 Suspension of vines The pods of pod beans are rapidly growing. When there are 5-6 leaves, scaffolds should be used. Generally, herringbone frames are used to reduce shading and facilitate harvesting. In the early period, the stem vines were not able to be entangled, and they were selected to manually support the vines on dew or cloudy days to prevent breakage.
5.3 Pruning Reasonable pruning is the main measure for high cowpea production. The lateral branches below the first inflorescence are removed as long as 3 cm to ensure that the main stem is robust; the lateral branches above the first inflorescence remain 1-2 leaves topping; when the main vine spreads to the roof, the top is picked to control the growth and promote the lower part. Lateral branches form flower buds.
5.4 Disease and Pest Control The main diseases of cowpea include rust, leaf spot, and root rot; insect pests include pods, leaf miners, and fleas. Close attention should be paid to pests and diseases, and comprehensive control techniques should be adopted: (1) Selection of disease-resistant varieties; (2) Choose the plots that have not been planted with leguminous crops for more than two years; (3) Remove the weeds in the surrounding fields and burn them in a centralized manner; pour in water for 1 week, or apply 0.5 kg of trichlorfon per acre or insecticide double 0.5 kg of carbendazim and 1 kg of carbendazim are used to sterilize the soil; (4) building sorghum, opening drainage and irrigation ditch to prevent water and rot from rooting; (5) adding organic fertilizer, reasonably top dressing, and NPK combined application; (6) Rational use of chemical pesticides. Triadimefon is used to prevent rust, thiophanate-methyl is used to control leaf spot, carbendazim, enemy xanthone, and bactericide are used to prevent root rot; underground pests such as tigers are controlled, and in addition to soil treatment, fried bran can also be used. The mixed trichlorfon was applied in the field around the evening to trap and kill, with the insecticidal double, anti-Taibao to control the soybean meal, and Lethburn and phoxim to control the leaf miner.
5.5 Reasonably harvested cowpeas are racemes. Each inflorescence has 2–5 pairs of flowers, usually only one pair of pods, with sufficient fertilizer and water, good management, and when all the flowers grow well, all flowers can be scarred. After the first soybean pod is harvested, the second pair of flower buds is set or fruited. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully harvest and not to injure or knock off the flower buds on the inflorescence to increase the number of pods and increase the yield. 10-12 days after flowering, the pods are full and the seeds can be harvested when they are not apparent. After harvesting, tie it up according to certain specifications, packing and listing.

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