Chinese Waterfowl Genetic Breeding

China is the world’s largest producer of waterfowl. The food produced after cooking or processing meat and eggs of waterfowl has a unique flavor. The waterfowl is also used for high-end products—fat liver production. The use of feathers and fluff is also very extensive. According to the statistics of the FAO, in 2003, the number of ducks in China reached 672 million, accounting for 60.7% of the total population in the world, and the amount of geese was 216 million, which accounted for 87.4% of the total in the world. Ducks and geese The annual slaughter volume was 1.634 billion and 494 million respectively, accounting for 71.7% and 92.6% of the total slaughter in the world. About 70,000 tons of export down products, export trade accounts for 50% of the world's total, is the world's largest producer of feathers. However, for a long time, the breeding of waterfowls in China has not been taken seriously, and the industrial potential has not been fully realized. In the structure of poultry eggs and poultry meat, the proportion of ducks and geese products is very small. According to statistics, duck meat accounted for 14.7% of poultry meat and duck eggs only accounted for 9.8% of poultry eggs. Therefore, my country’s poultry industry should develop and should pay attention to waterfowl breeding and other aspects of scientific research and vigorously develop the waterfowl industry. 1. Breeding of waterfowl 1.1.1 Resources of duck breeds and utilization The resources of Chinese duck breeds are abundant, and many local breeds with excellent production performance have been cultivated, such as Beijing duck, Shaoxing duck, Jinding duck, Gaoyou duck, Jianchang duck, Liancheng white. Ducks, etc., after further breeding, production performance continues to increase. For example, duck egg breeds, Shaoxing duck, Jinding duck and Taiwanese brown duck have an annual egg production of more than 300, which exceeds that of foreign egg duck breeds; Beijing duck is the most famous duck breed in the world, and many duck breeds ( Such as Cherry Valley Duck, Lijia Duck, Aobeixing Duck, Maple Duck, Haige Duck and Tianfu Duck, etc.) all have Beijing duck descent; Tianfu Meat Duck, high-quality white Muscovy RF and Taiwan White Feather Duck have reached the world Advanced level. China is the earliest country in duck production. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in the research and application of hybrid production systems and breeding techniques for ducks and ducks. The best two- and three-way hybrid systems have been used to replace traditional duck production (Muscod duck, raccoon, duck, duck). . Pingel (2001) emphasizes a duck breeding program based on a male-female cross of a specialized line. Based on individual feed intake and individual weight gain, direct selection of feed conversion rates will increase the biological and ecological efficiency of production and improve the duck's adaptability to hot climates. Larzul and Guy (2000) described the differences between the parents of Beijing duck and Muscovy duck passed to the hybrid offspring (duck ducks). The development status of the ducks before maturity was affected by the feed conversion rate, the inhibition of early growth and the growth of adult ducks. The decision was made that the quail-duck had higher feed conversion rate and breast muscle ratio than the parents, and the 10-week-old duck also had better feed conversion rate and greater body weight and liver weight. 1.2 Research on duration of artificial insemination and insemination of ducks In order to increase the utilization rate of excellent breeding drakes, artificial insemination has been widely used and the average fertilization rate can reach 72% to 75%. Artificial insemination technology saves a lot of feed costs, and successfully increases the breeding efficiency of duck production ducks, and at the same time plays an important role in the breeding and expansion of high-product lines (Rouvier et al. 1987). Unfortunately, due to the short duration of fertilization between different ducks, artificial insemination must be performed twice a week in order to increase the fertility rate. In order to reduce the number of artificial insemination, it will be beneficial to extend the duration of fertilization of female ducks through breeding. Poivey et al. (2001) used the REML model to estimate the genetic parameters of important economic traits of the basic population based on data from the previous five generations. The following traits were mainly analyzed: number of eggs produced within 2 to 15 days after an artificial insemination (Ie), number of fertilized eggs when hatched for 7 days after hatching (F), total number of dead embryos (M), and 2 days after an artificial insemination. The maximum duration of fertilization (Dm) and the number of hatched ducks (H) produced by one fertilized egg. All the above traits were analyzed from the first generation to the sixth generation according to the experimental group and the control group. The results showed that there was no significant difference in heritability between the traits and traits between the two groups. Heritability of each trait in the two groups: the number of eggs laid within 2 to 15 days after an artificial insemination was 0.14 and 1.0, and the number of fertilized eggs when hatched for 7 days was 0.30 and 0.26, respectively. The total number of dead embryos was 0.06 and 0.09 respectively. The maximum insemination duration from the second day to the last fertilized egg after an artificial insemination was 0.28 and 0.21, respectively, and the number of breeding ducks was 0.18 and 0.19, respectively; the number of insemination eggs in the two groups when hatched for 7 days The genetic correlation between the maximum fertilization duration and the second fertilized egg after the first artificial insemination was 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. The genetic correlation between the number of fertilized eggs and the number of grazing ducks was 7 days after hatching. At 0.86 and 0.91, respectively, the genetic association between the duration of maximum fertilization and the number of hatching ducks from the second to the last fertilized egg after an artificial insemination was 0.90 and 0.82. 1.3 Breeding of Goose In northern China, in the past, the quality of laying geese was used as the standard for the selection of preserved geese. Egg geese with the highest egg production rank among the world's goose breeds were bred. In the south, the meat was selected as the standard. China's largest lion-headed geese, black pheasant geese with good flesh quality, Zhedong white geese, etc., as well as the white geese with both flesh and cashmere, and white goose with both meat and eggs. However, at present, the level of geese breeding is relatively backward, and the low breeding rate of geese and the dependence on the ecological environment are the problems that restrict the breeding of geese (Yang Ning, 2005). One possibility for geese breeding is the breeding of egg numbers. Another approach may be to extend the geese's egg production cycle by regulating the light duration ( et al., 1996; Sellier and Rousselot, Pailey, 1999). Keep geese in windowless goose and eliminate seasonal eggs by breeding. To compare different possibilities, it is necessary to estimate the genetic parameters of egg production traits and gosling production traits under both propagation systems (Del1aunay, 2000). In the Landrace goose under outdoor conditions and under natural mating conditions, the heritability of the first laying period, the number of eggs laid, the length of the laying period, and the number of goslings were 0.41, 0.38, and 0.07, respectively; The genetic correlation for the duration was 0.78; the weight of the goose was 5.95 kg, the average number of eggs laid during the first laying period was 37.8, and the duration of egg production was 92.3 days. From these data, it may be possible to increase the number of eggs produced by breeding, but it is difficult to increase the hatching rate through breeding. According to the study of Rouvier et al. (2002), a white-geese geese raised under short-day and artificial insemination conditions had a heritability of 0.49 and a hatching rate heritability of 0.25. The genetic correlation between these two traits was 0.38; the heritability of the duration of egg production is 0.57. The genetic correlation between egg production and duration of egg production was 0.87. The average body weight was 5.62 kg, which was produced 287.1 days. The duration of egg production was 156.2 days. Under such feeding conditions, it seems feasible to extend the laying period and increase the hatching rate through breeding. Rouvier et al. (2002) used these genetic parameter values ​​to discuss and analyze the genetic progress achieved by breeding extended geese in terms of egg production and egg production. White-feathered geese grown under short-day conditions have a genetic progression greater than that of outdoor breeding. The genetic progression of geese is twice as high, which suggests that short-day (8-10 hours of light/16-14 hours of dark) conditions can stimulate reproduction and prolong egg production, thus increasing egg production ( et al., 1996 Sellier and Roisselot-Paillcy, 1999). According to Sie11ier and Rousselot Pailley (1999), maintaining 9 hours of light per day during the production of eggs is the best light solution for Landes Geese. In addition, under such rearing conditions not only prolong the laying cycle, but also eliminate the impact of the season on the laying of geese. Larzul et al. (2000) conducted two experiments on white feather goose experimental strains cultivated at the Artigueres experimental station, estimated the genetic parameters of traits such as growth, body size, and carcass composition using unfed geese, and assessed the growth of the geese fed with them. And genetic parameters of fatty liver. Breast meat is the most valuable carcass part. Among the unfed gooses slaughtered at 11 weeks of age, the heritability of the pectoralis major to carcass weight ratio was as high as 0.75, which was a selectable trait. 2. Fatty liver of waterfowl, one of the world's three major delicacies, is rich in nutrients and has health benefits. At present, China's fat liver market is still an undeveloped virgin land, fat liver (frozen fresh can be) price is about 220-300 yuan / kg, and supply in short supply. Geese (either male or female), male ducks, or ducks can be used to produce fatty liver. By manually forcing a large amount of high-energy feed (maize) in a short period of time, a large amount of fat will be deposited in the liver, resulting in the formation of a super fatty liver that is 5-6 times or even more than 10 times larger than normal duck, geese and liver. Rouvier et al. (1982) have demonstrated that the conventional selection index used in crosses between Landes and grey geese and certain strains in southwestern France can successfully increase the weight and technique of grey goose liver fat. Larzu1 et al. (2000) found that the heritability of feeding white goose liver weight was 0.59. In France, the production of breast meat (with skin and subcutaneous skin) was performed on male and female ducks fed on artificial insemination. Fat) and fatty liver. Muscovy ducks and ducks can produce fatty liver (average liver weight is 434 grams and 478 grams, respectively). In contrast, Beijing duck liver has a low fat and can not produce fatty liver (average weight 252 grams, less than the required weight). It is believed that the reason is that the fat synthesized in the liver of Beijing duck can be effectively discharged into the blood, so that the development of adipose tissue is superior to the development of fatty liver. The male Muscovy duck fed by Mignon-Grasteau et al. (1998) produced fatty liver with a heritability of 0.39. 3. Genetic markers for waterfowls The use of closely linked DNA markers for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) can accelerate the development of waterfowl breeding, especially for some of the sex traits. For the determination of disease resistance traits is difficult and time-consuming, the use of DNA marker mapping analysis will be an effective means. Vignal et al. (1999) used chicken cell genetic marker technology - fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for duck gene mapping studies. Maak et al. (2000) reported that seven characteristic microsatellite markers have been developed in Beijing ducks. Huang et al. (2001) used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to conduct a comparative study on the breeding and non-selective lines of 80 brown ducks. The AFLP markers showed a high degree of polymorphism, so AFLP markers could be used QTL detection, but the microsatellite markers of many waterfowl breeds have not yet been developed. In the breeding of geese, molecular genetic markers are relatively rare. Cui et al. (1995) used two kinds of restriction enzymes to analyze the white geese, Taihu geese, Zhedong white geese, Sichuan white geese, Hongyan and Lander. Goose Mitochondrial DNA Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RELP). The results showed that the restrictive patterns of the 12 enzymes in Chinese goose and geese are identical, and Landes geese have different restrictive patterns in the two enzymes. It was confirmed that the Chinese geese originated from the speculation of the geese. Landes geese and Chinese geese originated from different ancestors. With the further development of molecular biotechnology, major breakthroughs will be made in exploring the origin and genetic characteristics of goose. 4. Conclusions The research on genetic breeding of waterfowls in China is backward, and scientific research on waterfowl breeding should be strengthened. The development of waterfowl industry should be highly valued. Looking into the future, waterfowl breeding and breeding hotspots will focus on gene level and construction of molecular genetic marker maps, quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection, genomic analysis and identification of important economic trait candidate genes. As long as we make full use of the species resources of Chinese waterfowl and strengthen the development of breeding and industrial chain, it is believed that the Chinese waterfowl industry will leap forward.

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