â€œOne crop of flowers depends entirely on fat.â€ This phrase also applies to citrus production. The difference in plant growth when the citrus is in the absence of fertilizer is low; however, excessive fertilization will not only waste fertilizers and increase production costs, but also cause serious damage to the plants and worsen the soil environment. The following are some of the fertilization techniques that the author has summarized:
1. Look at the varieties Fertilizer Citrus varieties have different requirements for fertilizers. Normally, late-maturing varieties need more fertilizers than early-maturing varieties, and navel oranges and other flowering varieties need more fertilizer than other sweet oranges. Flowering consumes a lot of nutrients. At present, citrus grown in China is mostly a grafted tree. Therefore, it is not only necessary to look at the grafted varieties when fertilizing, but also to see if Carrizo oranges, which are commonly used as rootstocks in rootstocks, need more fertilizer than dwarfing anvils. Need more nutrition.
2. Seeing weather factors such as fertilization rainfall, temperature, light, etc. not only directly affect the function of citrus roots to absorb nutrients but also affect the decomposition of soil organic matter, the transformation of nutrient form, and the activity of soil microorganisms. Therefore, it is recommended to look at the weather and fertilization. Disperse the compound fertilizer when the soil is wet after rainfall in rainy days. Fertilizer is not only easy to dissolve but also facilitates root absorption and saves labor. High temperature and drought combined with anti-drought shower cast manure water, fertilizer application should not be dry. Spraying citrus leaf surface fertilizer such as 0.3% urea or potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution to spray cloudy or late evening, the effect is good.
3. Seeing fertilization during the phenophase to stabilize the fruit before the first and second physiological fruiting of the citrus can increase the fruit setting rate. The spring shoots are both the result of the mother shoot and the result of the shoot. The application of the shoot bud and fertilizer can promote the spring shoot to facilitate the increase of production; the autumn shoot is the result; the mother shoot is suitable for the increase of the yield in the coming year with the help of the Shi Zhuang fruit to promote the shoot fertilizer; When the tree body extracts the summer shoots, the tip fruit will compete for fat and increase the fruit drop. Therefore, the summer shoots will not be fertilized before and after the hair growth.
4. See Soil Fertilization China's citrus is mainly cultivated in red soil and purple soil. Red clay soil, acid, lean will not only lack of phosphorus, zinc will also be lack of boron, magnesium, calcium should be added accordingly; because of its high activity of strong acid manganese should prevent excessive manganese damage to the tree. Purple soil organic matter and nitrogen content Low phosphorus, potassium content should be increased organic fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer. Soil pH varies depending on fertilization. For the red soil acid soil, lime is added to increase the pH value of the soil. Phosphate fertilizer should use calcium, magnesium and phosphate fertilizers. In the alkaline purple soil with a pH value of more than 7.5, the anthracite anthraquinones are susceptible to iron deficiency and the leaves are yellowed and replaced with Ziyang. Orange or red tangerine should be used as rootstock and more organic fertilizer, leaf green Ling applied phosphate fertilizer application of superphosphate.
5. Looking at the age of fertilized citrus trees in different ages requires different types and amounts of fertilizers, especially for unsuccessful young trees and adult trees.
1 Unsuccessful young trees: The purpose of fertilizing is to accelerate the vegetative growth of plants so as to form the crown as soon as possible. Therefore, the application of nitrogen fertilizer is mainly based on the appropriate amounts of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. In the first year after planting, 300 kg of urea, 1 kg of ternary compound fertilizer containing 15% of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are added, and the amount of fertilizer applied in the second year is increased by 60% to 80% and then increased by 80% to 100% in the third year. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O) is 1:0.3:0.5. The fertilization time in the growing season of March to September is best applied once a month in the root active period of 5679 months and 4 months should be applied in other three months and the appropriate amount of less. In addition, urea or potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution with a concentration of 0.3% to 0.4% foliar was sprayed for 3 to 4 times at the time of shoot tipping or leaf turning, and laborers could combine pest control.
2 adult tree: The purpose of fertilization is to make the plant both grow and result. Comprehensive studies have confirmed that the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium required for producing 2,000 kg of fruit per acre are 12 kg, 4.8 kg and 9.6 kg of synthetic urea (including 46% of nitrogen) and superphosphate (20% of phosphorus) respectively. Potassium sulfate (50% potassium) was 26.1 kg, 24 kg and 19.2 kg, respectively. If the application of compound fertilizer is based on the amount of fertilizer recommended for the least amount of application, then add the other two kinds of fertilizer. For example, in the present production, especially for the citrus plants that are commonly used as tablets, the compound fertilizer with a nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content of 15% each should be used. The amount of this compound fertilizer should be: (4.815) 100 = 32 kg, that is to say, The amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus pentoxide and potassium oxide were 4.8 kg each. The calculation formula for nitrogen and potassium simple fertilizers is: (Recommended fertilizer amount - applied fertilizer amount) The effective content of chemical fertilizers to be applied is equal to the amount of fertilizing material. According to the above-mentioned recommended dosage, 7.2 kg of nitrogen and 4.8 kg of potassium oxide should be added. If urea and potassium sulfate are used for conversion, 15.7 kg and 9.6 kg shall be added respectively.
The fertilization is divided into 4 times in the whole year: the germinating fertilizer (spring fertilizer) is mainly applied to available nitrogen fertilizer (such as urea) 1 to 2 weeks before germination or when the spring shoot turns green; the stable fruit fertilizer is after the first physiological fruit drop 5 Before and after the end of the month, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers are applied in combination; the fruit-promoting fertilizer is mainly applied with potassium and nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers are applied in the middle and late August; the fruit-fertilizer (over-wintering fertilizer) is specially precocious and the early-maturing varieties are post-harvest. Mid-maturity and late-maturing varieties were advanced to pre-harvest fertilization materials with manure, cake fertilizer, green manure and other organic fertilizers and superphosphate, and were combined with available nitrogen fertilizer. The above four fertilization amounts accounted for 10%, 20%, 40% and 30% of the annual fertilization amount. The same foliar fertilization as saplings is performed during the spring and autumn shoots.
6. Look at the tree vigor and fertilize the tree that grows weaker and weaker (pay attention to a small number of times) to grow vigorously without applying or applying less; For the lack of management of the "small old tree" that grows and grows weaker in order to promote its growth to apply more nitrogen fertilizer and use a small number of fertilization methods.
7. Looking at fertilizer application Different fertilizer application periods and methods have different effects. General requirements for early application of basal fertilizer, deep application (ditching and application) of phosphate fertilizer combined with organic fertilizer application (covering soil after digging in summer and autumn after digging), the application of acidic fertilizer on alkaline soil alkaline fertilizer applied to the acid soil.
Farmyard fertilizers usually have slower fertilizer effect to increase their fertilizer efficiency by accelerating their decomposition. Superphosphate can be added to human waste. 100 kg of human excreta plus 5 kg of superphosphate can be stored evenly for 5 to 10 days so that ammonium carbonate easily converted into stable ammonium phosphate can effectively prevent nitrogen loss and increase phosphorus in human waste. element.
8. Look at technical fertilization See technical fertilization is to do more with the other technical measures taken by citrus fertilization effect. Such as citrus trees after several occasional eradication sporadic shoots in the central 7 ~ 10 days before the central release with application of available nitrogen fertilizer can make the shoots neat, robust and escape the damage of leaf miner; tree before the production often appear autumn The phenomenon of shoot prolongation is not conducive to flower bud differentiation and leap year results. Usually, the flowering technique of spraying paclobutrazol (PP333), circumcision, and pull-pulling suspension is commonly used to stop the supply of fertilizer and water to favor flower bud formation.
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