First, the significance of cultivation
The cultivation of grape greenhouses is a kind of anti-season cultivation method artificially creating a plant ecological environment that enables the grapes to sprout, grow, and mature earlier or later, or to delay the maturity of the grapes, thereby obtaining higher economic benefits. A new type of industry that combines capital, technology, and labor-intensive technologies.
Second, the type of greenhouse
Divided according to the purpose of viticulture: greenhouses to promote cultivation, greenhouse delay cultivation, rain cultivation, flood control cultivation, etc., the most widely used in production is to promote cultivation, promote cultivation is divided into solar greenhouses and plastic greenhouses.
Third, the structure of the greenhouse 1, solar greenhouse
Sunlight greenhouse investment, high cost, long service life, so that the greenhouse can receive maximum light energy, and have good insulation effect, must have a reasonable design, determine the length and width of the greenhouse, before the roof and after The roof angle, the thickness of the wall and the back wall, and the selection of the support material.
Solar greenhouses generally face the south and face the south, east and west sides of the north wall, south slope, covered with plastic film, shed length 50-80m, width of 7-8m is appropriate, each shed about 600m2, the back wall height 1.6-1.8m, after The back height is 2.8-3.2m. The back wall and side wall are made of brick or wet soil. To ensure good insulation performance, the thickness of the back wall is greater than the permafrost layer of the local winter, about 60-80cm. When the wall is located, a ventilation window with a length and width of 50cm should be provided at a distance of 1.5m from the wall base at a height of about 1.5m. Doors and workrooms can be provided on the east and west sides of the greenhouse, and the front of the greenhouse is digged 30cm from the front of the greenhouse. The cold ditch with a depth greater than the thickness of the local permafrost layer is filled with straw and other cold-proof materials.
The scaffolding can be made of steel, wood, bamboo, cement pillars, etc., according to the actual situation. At present, it is better to use steel as a scaffolding. The shading area is small and solid, and the pillars in the greenhouse are saved. In the production, the diameter is 16mm. And 12mm round steel welded into a double-arch type flower steel frame, coarse steel bar on the top, fine steel bar, the distance between the two 20cm, and then the diameter of 10mm round steel was "human" connection, but also can be used 6 steel pipe welded into a single arch The distance between the frame and the steel frame is determined according to the pressure resistance condition, generally between 60-80cm. In areas with large winter snow, the frame spacing is slightly smaller, and the frame distance is not large in snow-resistant areas. The double-arched steel frame is The compressive strength is high. In the middle, there is no need to set up a column or only one. A single arch-shaped steel frame requires 2-3 columns in the middle. The front of the arch is rounded and falls vertically. The bend is at least 1.1 m above the ground.
2, plastic greenhouse
Plastic greenhouses have low construction costs, do not need to have walls, and are circular arched, have a large light receiving area, and have relatively uniform internal lighting. They are suitable for grape growth. As a result, their heat insulation is lower than that of solar greenhouses, but the temperature changes in spring and autumn are large. Early spring sprouts of grapes have created good conditions for prolonged growth in the fall.
Generally, plastic greenhouses are oriented from north to south, with shed length of 50-60m, width of 8-12m, and height of 2.5m. Each shed is about 600m2. Scaffolds can be determined according to the actual situation. The current production is mainly based on bamboo structures. The round arched sheds were constructed as follows: the height of the pillars was 2.8m high and the height of the side posts was 2.2m. The bamboo poles with a diameter of 3-4 cm were used as the arch rods. Each arch rod was supported by four cement columns and the spacing of the arch rods was 2m. Slightly thicker than the bamboo rod of the arch rod, longitudinally pulls it, and uses 8th wire or special laminated film to compress the shed film to form the overall structure of the greenhouse. During construction, the column is buried first, and the bottom of the column is buried 30-40cm below the ground and aligned at any time. The distance between the columns of columns is 1.5-2m, and the side columns are about 1m from the side of the shed. Then the upper arch is connected and the connection is bent. Curved, placed in the upper end of the column carved, fixed with iron wire, the bottom of the arch buried 20-30cm underground, shed north and south ends of the dig deep and wide 20cm of the trench, cover film, on the internal reinforcement . After the film is covered with 8 wire or laminating film lamination and tension fixed. Because the greenhouse is north-south, and the temperature at the south end of the shed is higher than the north end, the door is set at the southern end to facilitate operations. The door width can be about 1.5m and 1.8m.
Fourth, the choice of varieties Greenhouse grapes are mainly to promote early maturation, seize the market, so when selecting varieties, should follow the following two points:
1. Selection Principles According to the estimated time to market for protected cultivation, select early maturing or very early maturing varieties.
Choose varieties with large grains, tight ear, bright color, and rich flavor.
Choose varieties that have strong adaptability to environmental conditions such as soil, temperature, humidity, and light, and strong disease resistance.
2, suitable for planting varieties
(1) Choose very early maturing, early maturing varieties: Super Karen Seedless, Oriental Black Pearl Seedless, American Pearl Scarlett, Venus Seedless, Jingya, Jingxiu, 6-112, Yafu Rosa, 628 , Citron, Auguste, Royal Rose, Non-nuclear white chicken heart, and other reasonable close planting.
(2) Early-maturing varieties: Superstars, Fujiminori, American Reddish, Giant Rose, etc.
V. Cultivating Techniques 1. Cultivation Racks and Density Commonly used in greenhouses are fences, trellises and trellises. The trellises can be planted in close proximity. Suitable for species with moderate growth and narrow width plastic sheds. Application, due to the strong growth of the branches of the vine, the high rate of winter buds, the easy formation of the plants, the early results, but the branches closed; the shelving plane is flat, with good ventilation and light transmission, and the dendrite growth is moderate, suitable for strong growth potential. It is used in plastic sheds of wide varieties and widths, but it takes a long time to complete the plastics. The sheds combine the advantages of the trellises and scaffolds. The first two years of planting use a fence and the third year it is a scaffold. It is the most widely used form of greenhouses and greenhouses.
The row spacing of the grapes depends on the size, shape, and direction of the greenhouse. Straw frame, generally 2-2.5m, spacing 0.7-1.0m, processing of scaffolds, if planted in a greenhouse, generally set on both sides of the greenhouse, so that creeping climbers, if in a greenhouse, it should be The east-west line is planted on scaffolds with a row spacing of 5-6m and plant spacing of 0.6-0.8m.
a. The method of colonization is the same as that of the open field.
b. The management after planting should achieve the year of planting, then the result of the year when the shed is shed, and when it receives more economic benefits, it must begin with planting and interlocking.
First plant strong seedlings, apply sufficient base fertilizer, strengthen management after planting, pest control, when the new shoot grows to 20-30cm to pick up the heart, wait until the buds of the summer shoots germinate, choose to retain 2-4 strong branches as the result of the branches, the rest The tip of the tip shoots and removes, and when the tip is 60 cm long, it picks up the heart. After the second tip of the sprout, it leaves 1-2 leaves to pick the heart, which promotes the development of the lower buds. At the same time, the stent is pulled to pull the wire, and the new one is added. Grow. After the trees are fallen, they are trimmed in time and different cuts are taken according to different tree vigors. For the weaker plants, short-pitch 3-5 buds near the ground, pruning 30-50cm buds at the middle of the growth, and then horizontally binding on the first wire to perform strong pruning. , occupying the upper space and expanding the area of â€‹â€‹the result.
6, key management techniques after the shed, 1, shed time greenhouses generally in the decile in the middle and late December, and plastic sheds in the middle and late January shed.
2, broken sleep technology used in solar greenhouses.
a. Applying lime nitrogen, starting to warm up in December or early January when natural dormancy has not ended, must take measures to release dormancy, smear lime nitrogen can be early to lift dormancy, should be carried out 15-30 days before warming is better, its method Lime nitrogen is applied to the resulting mother shoots 5-8 times, then the branches are affixed to the ground and covered with a plastic film to moisturize. The grapes are germinated earlier for about 15 days, and germinate neatly. The grapes are brought to the city for about 15 days.
b. Low-temperature regulation Grapes do not need natural temperatures to sleep. It usually takes 1200-1500 hours for 7.2Â°C to pass through the natural dormancy. Therefore, after the winter irrigation in mid-November, the curtains should be buckled so that the room will not see light during the day and the air will be cooled at night. After about 30 days, the temperature will gradually increase. During the day, 1/3 of the grass curtains will be lifted first. /3 Grass curtain, all curtains can be uncovered after another 5 days.
3. The temperature and temperature are the key factors in determining the greenhouse grapes. Its control principle is to control as much as possible within the suitable range of its growth results. Whether it is high or low temperature will have adverse effects on the grape growth results.
a. From warming up to sprouting, the grapes must have an effective accumulated temperature of about â‰¥10Â°C from the beginning of warming up to sprouting, and the effective accumulated temperature is about 450-500Â°C. After about 20-30 days, it is not easy to rise too quickly. If the temperature is too high, the temperature is low. Easy to cause grapes to sprout in advance, and not neat, poor flowering ear, warming can be as follows: the first week, the temperature should be maintained at 15-20 Â°C, 6-10 Â°C at night, the second week temperature is 15-20 Â°C, 10 - 15Â°C at night, 20-25Â°C in the third week, 13-15Â°C in the night until budding.
b. From sprouting to flowering: During this period, the grape shoots grow rapidly and the flower organ continues to differentiate. In order to prevent the growth of new shoots, during the growth of shoots, the daytime temperature is still controlled at 20-25Â°C, and it is advisable to use 15-20Â°C during the night. Before and after the flowering period, the temperature should be slightly increased, and the temperature should be controlled at 25-28Â°C during the day. 18-22 Â°C at night to meet the needs of flowering and setting fruit temperature, is conducive to pollination and insemination, improve the fruit setting rate.
c. In the fruit enlargement period, in order to promote the rapid expansion of young fruit, the daytime temperature in the shed is appropriately increased, preferably 28-30Â°C, and 18-22Â°C at night. At this time, the temperature outside the shed has picked up and the temperature inside the shed has increased rapidly. , pay special attention to the phenomenon of over-temperature during the day, if the daytime temperature is higher than 30 Â°C, timely ventilation and cooling, to prevent the temperature is too high, easy to cause sunburn phenomenon.
d. fruit coloring period: the fruit into the berry mature period, in order to increase the tree's nutrient accumulation, increase the glucose can increase the temperature difference between day and night (up to about 10 Â°C), so during the day should be controlled at 28-30 Â°C, the maximum does not exceed 32 Â°C The night temperature is 15-16Â°C.
In addition, due to poor insulation of plastic greenhouses, in order to prevent low-temperature disasters, a small shed can be set up in the shed in the early stage to prevent germination, and then the windproof cold is set on the north side of the shed. The awning covers the grass on both sides to improve the temperature in the shed and is conducive to new shoots. Grow to prevent late frost.
4. Moisture management In the germinating period of grapes, the environment with high temperature and humidity is required. The water demand is large, and the soil water content reaches 70-80%. Therefore, when the temperature and germination start, it is necessary to fill the water once, and then the soil is allowed to infiltrate and the soil is released. The mulch retains water and raises the temperature of the ground. At this time, the relative humidity of the air in the shed is maintained at 70-80%. During the growing period of the shoots of the new shoots, the shoots are prevented from becoming long and are conducive to the differentiation of flower buds. It is necessary to control the irrigation and pay attention to ventilation and ventilation to make the air in the shed relatively stable. The humidity is reduced to 60-70%. Before and after flowering, in order to ensure the normal progress of flowering loose powder and reduce the occurrence of diseases and insect pests, air drying is required, and ventilation is frequently used to reduce the relative humidity of the air in the shed to 50-60%; Large amount of water, in order to promote the rapid increase of fruit, 25 days after the Xiehua, irrigation can be 1-2 times permeate, so that the soil moisture content of 70-80%, relative humidity in the shed control at about 70%; fruit coloring From the start of the period until the collection period, irrigation should be stopped to help increase the sugar content of the fruit, promote coloration and maturation, and prevent fruit cracking. The humidity in the shed should be controlled at about 60%.
5. Fertilizer greenhouse grapes are generally applied in October of the same year. The base fertilizer is fully decomposed organic fertilizer, with 4000-5000kg per mu, plus appropriate amount of available NPK fertilizer and trace fertilizer. Applying organic fertilizer is a high-yield and high-yield greenhouse vine. Foundation. After top dressing, there are several stages of top dressing: budding stage, applying 50 yuan compound fertilizer per acre, 50 kg each of urea and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, spraying 2-3 times of foliar fertilizer before spraying, spraying 0.2-0.3% urea or Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate, after Xie Hua, combined with watering Mushi 50kg urea, from late April to early May, applying 50kg of potassium sulfate into the mu, from berry enlargement to fruit ripening, foliar spray of rare earth microelement fertilizer and photosynthetic fertilizer 2 - 3 times to enhance the resistance of the plant, increase the sugar content of the fruit, promote the coloration of the berries and the maturity of the shoots.
6. Flower and fruit management The main purpose of the cultivation of grape greenhouses is to produce high-quality, high-grade fruit, thereby increasing economic income. To ensure the quality of fruit, the following points should be noted:
a, sparse inflorescence when the grape results in the length of the branch to reach 20cm before flowering, can be carried out, generally each fruit branch leaves 1 ear, a small number of strong branches to stay 2, the weak branch leaves no ear, yield should be controlled at about 2000kg.
b. The whole ear is used to make the ears beautiful and standardized. The vice ears on the inflorescence may be picked up one week before flowering. According to the size of the inflorescence, the large branches on the main ear may be removed by 2-3 or 4-5. The head of the spike was removed by 1/4 or 1/5, and then the inflorescence was reshaped. The inflorescence thus preserved had 14 or so small branches. The inflorescence had a conical shape.
c. Sparse grains are sparse from the small fruit pieces and deformed fruit pieces on the ear, and retain the uniform size of the fruit pieces, and limit the number of fruit pieces. Generally, 40-50 grains are left to facilitate the neat and beautiful appearance of the ear, which is in line with high-grade goods. Fruit requirements.
7. The shoot management of new shoots in greenhouses is almost the same as that in open land grapes, but care should be taken to prevent the shoots from growing or growing neatly so as to stabilize the tree potential and improve product quality.
a. Trichoderma larvae usually grow to a point where the shoots can be clearly distinguished, and recognize whether or not the inflorescence is large and small, and remove the shoots that are too strong or too weak when the shoots are budded, and retain the fruiting branches with moderate growth and inflorescence. Inappropriate plastic surgery, performance and useless new shoots are erased, reducing plant nutrient consumption.
b. Fixing the tip is the measure to determine the loading capacity of the new rack surface. The number of leaving branches directly affects the yield and quality of the grape fruit. Generally, the average density of each greenhouse is less than 1/3 of open land, and 1000-1250 kg per mu is appropriate. 5-6 results per m2 can be left. New shoots (2000-2400 per square meter) (2) According to the Zhuangzhi leaves 2 ears, medium branches left 1 ears, weak branches without leaving fruit, the fixed tip, and not too dense, in order to ensure the permeability of the plane. If the branching and result are too much, the grape will be difficult to color, the quality will be reduced, and the ripening period will be postponed.
c. Because of the large density of planting grapes in greenhouses, new shoots grow rapidly. When new shoots grow to 40cm in length, they are immediately tied to the rack surface in accordance with the plastic requirements, so that the shelf surface has good permeability, which is conducive to good plant growth and should not be left unchecked. The new shoots are free to extend, making it easy for new shoots to grow, leaf function to decline, and plant diseases to increase.
d. Pinching and Auxiliary Tip Treatments The shoots are generally picked at the top of the inflorescence with 5-7 leaves to increase the fruit setting rate. For the European and American varieties with heavier flowering and falling fruit, strong picking can be used to pick up the hearts of 4-6 leaves above the inflorescence. At the same time, the tendrils were plucked, and after topping, the sprouting secondary shoots were extended except for the top of the new shoots to extend the leaf area, and all the others were erased. If it is beneficial to the secondary effect of winter buds, then in the middle and mid-June, the above-mentioned two prolonged secondary shoots can be cut off to force the winter buds under the cut to germinate, and the secondary results of the toppings should be early and heavy, generally. Leave one leaf above the inflorescence topping. After leaving one leaf blade, the secondary shoots will be wiped off. The inflorescence leaves the first leaves to grow longer, increasing the leaf area and increasing the rate of seed setting. The Eurasian cultivars can take 6-8 pieces of inflorescences topping or post-harvest topping, and even do not pick up their hearts, allowing them to lose some flowers or fruits, and then wait for fruiting before picking them again to ensure the appearance of fruit and ears in later stages. Degree, to meet the requirements of high-grade fruit.
In addition, when cultivating young plants, in order to promote the growth of the main vines and the differentiation of the main vine flower buds, the single leaf replanting method proposed by the Grapevine Teaching and Research Section of Beijing Agricultural University can be used. After the main shoots are picked up, they are removed. The top apical shoot retains 3-5 leaves topping, leaves 1 leaf topping on the other shoots in the leafhopper, and removes the axillary buds of the leaf to disable the ability to germinate secondary shoots. This saves both The labor force has also played a good role in the increase of grape vines and flower bud differentiation.
8. Pest control
Early prevention and control of gray mold, when the new shoot 30-40 centimeters, playing a protective agent. Pharmacy types include Bordeaux fluid, Dasheng M-45, killable and so on. If the disease has already occurred, use grey gypsum, grey mold and other therapeutic agents.
Insect pests are mainly heavier due to grape felt disease and flat ball warts. The use of a mixture of lime sulfur and dichlorvos before the sprouting of the grapes is effective in preventing and controlling these two pests.
9, winter cold
The method of protecting against the cold in winter is to cover the greenhouse film before the fall and the grapes in the shed. After covering the grapes in the shed, cover the straw with a thickness of 10 cm so that it can safely pass through the winter.
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