2. The suitable seedling age for cultivating the spring tomato of the suitable age and strong seedling shall be 50 to 70 days, ie 50 to 70 days before planting. For example, in Shenyang, which is located at latitude 41 in the north, the spring tomato is planted in the protected area in February and planted in the protected area. After the frost in early May, it is planted in the open field. In the seedling stage, we must strengthen management and cultivate strong seedlings.
3. Site preparation (1) The soil preparation for tomato cultivation should not be used as a continuous crop. It is necessary to carry out 2 to 3 years of rotation with non-solanum crops. To cultivate tomato plots, it is best to carry out 25- to 30-cm deep fall tumbling, and tomato cultivation is divided into ridges and pods. The pods are divided into sorghum, flat rakes, and ravines. In the northeast region, it is customary to plant ridges. Generally, the ridge spacing is 50 to 30 cm. Spring is used in sorghum cultivation in rainy areas, and spring drought and less rain areas are often cultivated in flat ridges or in ravines. Planting plants are generally 1.0-1.3 meters wide. It's better to go toward the north or south direction.
(2) Base fertilizer tomato is very sensitive to the nutrient response, high enough fertilizer to achieve high yield and high efficiency. When sorghum is used for soil preparation, basal fertilizer should be added. Generally, about 5000 kilograms of manure per acre is applied to fertilization, about 30 kilograms of compound fertilizer or diammonium phosphate, about 100 kilograms of superphosphate are applied per acre, and basal fertilization is best applied by furrows. Withdrawal, according to the determination, the yield of 5000 kg of tomato. Need to absorb nitrogen 17 kg, phosphorus 4.1 kg, potassium 16.1 kg.
(3) Planting time Spring tomatoes are generally localized after the late frost period in the locality, when the soil temperature in the plough layer is 5 to 10 cm deep and the temperature stabilizes at 12Â°C. For example, the average late frost period in Shenyang in the past year is May 2. The suitable period for planting is generally May 6-10. The Yangtze River basin is generally around Qingming, before and after the rains in North China, before and after the summer in the northeastern region of the 1 planting, wind barriers, mulching, and leeward sunny desert sand land can be planted early. Colonization should be determined according to the weather conditions. In case of rainy windy weather, planting should be delayed. Colonization should be done early in the appropriate colonization period.
(4) Density of planting Density of planting depends on factors such as breed, growth period and pruning method. Early maturing cultivars are generally planted with 5000-6000 strains per acre, medium-late-maturing varieties generally planted with 3500 strains per acre, medium-late-maturing varieties are double-dry and pruned, and elevated plants are planted with about 2000 strains per acre. Early-maturing varieties generally use an axillary variety and are 1â€“1.5. m, colonization 2 to 4 rows, plant spacing 25 to 33 cm, late-maturing varieties using alfalfa, alfalfa width is generally 1 to 1.1 meters, each row 2 rows, spacing 35 to 40 centimeters, the use of ridge planting general ridge distance of 55 ~ 60 centimeters, 35 to 40 centimeters of plant spacing, about 3500 acres planted.
(5) Colonization method The best choice for planting is to choose a windless sunny day. On the first day of planting, the seedbed was filled with water for the next day. Paper bag nursery can be bagged and planted. The plastic seedlings will be removed with the plastic planters. After planting, the seedlings can be planted and then watered (dried) or watered and then watered (water-stable seedlings). Do not plant too deep or too shallow when planting seedlings. The depth of planting is appropriate to the soil surface and the surface is flat or slightly darker. The temperature of the planted soil is too low, which is unfavorable for root growth and slow seedling growth. The planting is too shallow and unstable, and it is prone to lodging. If the tomato seedlings are poorly managed due to poor management, they can be planted and planted (the tip of the stem exposed is slightly inclined to the south) to reduce the height of the seedlings on the ground, promote adventitious roots, prevent lodging, and prevent sunburn.
(6) Plastic film cover In recent years, plastic film cover has been widely used in tomato cultivation, and not only widely used in open field cultivation, but also widely applied in cut-to-cultivation in protected areas, with significant effect of increasing production value. Plastic film cover is not only suitable for early spring cultivation, but also suitable for late summer cultivation. In early spring, mulching can increase ground temperature, inhibit weeds, maintain loose soil, preserve water, preserve fertilizers, mature early, increase yields, and extend cultivation in late summer to prevent drought in areas without irrigation conditions, and to facilitate drainage in the rainy season, and to prevent flooding. It is conducive to creating high yields in summer. Plastic film can cover ridges and can also cover rakes. Can be planted after the first seedlings can also be planted seedlings after laying the film. When the seedlings are planted, the seedlings must be tightly covered to prevent the plastic film from being scraped by the wind to prevent the hot gas under the plastic film from burning. Plastic film can also be covered with mulching method, the seedlings planted under the film before the frost (ditch depth to the seedlings do not contact the film is appropriate), the seedlings after the cream out of the film, and then fall film, with soil pressure film.
4. Field management after planting (1) In addition to the mulching of the cultivating, weeding and tomato cultivation, the cultivating and weeding shall be carried out in time. The cultivator can eradicate weeds, loosen the soil, preserve water, increase soil temperature, and promote root development. After the rain or irrigation, it is necessary to carry out cultivating and weeding in time after the soil moisture is slightly dry. The whole growth period is generally 3 to 5 times. The cultivator in the previous season was small because of the small root groups, and gradually became lighter in the later period. In combination with cultivator, soil should be cultivated to prevent lodging. Film mulch cultivation is generally not cultivator, when the weeding is generally taken in situ to pressure the grass under the mulch, making it dark to death, large grass to be manually removed.
(2) Irrigation Tomato cultivation such as water shortage, plant growth is slow, leaf aging, curling, fruit smaller, virus disease worse. Drought can also cause flowering, soil is rich in fertilizer, and it is prone to fruit umbilical rot in dry conditions. For example, if soil moisture management changes drastically, it can easily cause fruit cracking.
Spring watering should not be excessive when planting tomatoes. Excessive water volume tends to reduce soil temperature and is not conducive to slow seedling growth. After planting for 3 to 5 days, the color of the heart and leaves of the plant is changed from green to green. When the growth point begins to grow, it is generally necessary to fill the water of the seedling or call the tree.
Retaining water should be large, such as nutrition or nutrition bag seedlings, we must soak the pot to open, promote the root system as soon as possible to send outside the pot, into the soil, in order to shorten the seedling period. After easing the water, the cultivator will be cultivated. After easing the seedlings to the first fruit during the fruit set, if no special drought occurs, watering is generally not required. Tomato seedlings are mainly to promote root development, control plant growth, and adjust the balance of vegetative and reproductive growth to facilitate flowering. The length of seedlings should be based on the plant growth, variety characteristics and environmental conditions. The management of tomato seedlings is an important technical link for obtaining high yields. Generally early-maturing cultivars are weak in growth, with early floral differentiation, early flowering, and early fruiting. The time of seedling emergence should not be too long. The late-maturing varieties of plants are growing vigorously, and they must be strictly controlled when growing strong. The time for seedlings can be appropriately extended. The production of the first inflorescence fruit walnut, the second inflorescence fruit broad beans, the third inflorescence just finished flowering seedlings.
The tomato seedlings will enter the fruiting stage at the end of the seedling period, and the result will be high enough and sufficient water to promote the growth and development of stems and leaves and fruits. Under normal weather conditions, irrigation is usually performed once every 4 to 6 days, and the amount of irrigation should be gradually increased. When there is a lot of rain, it is necessary to properly reduce irrigation. In the result period, we should always keep the soil moist and prevent it from drying out. Whether the water and fertilizer management is adequate in the result period is the key to high yield of tomato.
Tomato irrigation methods mainly include furrow irrigation, sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation, of which furrow irrigation is the main method. Tomato cultivation should not only pay attention to irrigation, but also pay attention to drainage and flood prevention during the rainy season. In areas without irrigation, tomato cultivation is best covered with plastic film.
(3) The uptake of nutrients by top-dressing tomato is greater, and it increases with the growth and development of the plant and the increase of flowering results. The absorption period of nutrients is at the peak of the result. After the first fruit and fruit set, combined with watering, topdressing the fruit fertilizer once. Per acre can be applied 15 to 20 kg of urea, superphosphate 20 to 25 kg, or 20 to 30 kg of diammonium phosphate. Potassium sulfate 10 kg should be applied when potassium is lacking. 1000 kg of composted human excreta and 100 kg of plant ash can also be used instead of fertilizer. Later, when the second ear and the third ear begin to expand rapidly, they are top-dressed one at a time. When the fourth ear of the elevated cultivation starts to expand rapidly, it must also be topdressed. Top dressing can be buried deep, or it can be poured with water. The former should pay attention to deep application and sealing, while the latter should pay attention to the amount of fertilizer to prevent burning seedlings. Tomato cultivation in addition to soil topdressing, but also for foliar dressing. Foliar topdressing can prolong leaf lifespan, promote growth and development, enhance plant disease resistance, and increase yield and increase value significantly. For top dressing, 0.2 to 0.4% of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, or 0.1 to 0.3% of urea, or 2% of superphosphate calcium solution can be sprayed on the surface, or multiple fertilizers can be sprayed. The rapid expansion of fruit such as fertilizer and water is insufficient, the fruit development is not neat, the fruit becomes smaller, and the yield is significantly reduced.
(4) Inserting racks and cultivating tomatoes, except for unbranched cultivation, generally require fruit vines. After planting the tomato, it is necessary to insert vines before flowering to prevent lodging. In spring drought and windy areas, vines must be inserted immediately after planting. Rafts are available in bamboo rafts, straws, wood poles and special plastic rods. The main form of the insert frame is a single rod frame, a herringbone frame, a four-corner frame and a fence frame. Early-maturing varieties can be used for low-profile, late-maturing large-sized tomatoes are not only tall, but also strong. The bound vines are required to be carried out in time with the upward growth of the plants to prevent the plants from falling down or falling down. Tied vines should be tight and moderate. Tied vines should be adjusted in the frame of the ears, stems and leaves adjusted out of the frame to avoid fruit damage and fruit burning, improve the ventilation and light transmission performance of the group, and is conducive to the growth of stems and leaves.
(5) Tomato pruning appropriate pruning and removal of excess lateral branches will help strengthen ventilation and light transmission, prevent plant growth, reduce plant nutrient consumption, promote flowering results, in order to achieve the purpose of increasing production and income. Early-maturing cultivation generally adopts the single-stem pruning method, and the late-maturing and more-cultivated cultivation can adopt the continuous picking and pruning method, or the head-regenerating and regeneration pruning method. The combination of pruning should be carried out to thin the fruit and remove the old leaves and diseased leaves.
(6) Baohuabao Fruits The main measures for protecting tomatoes and protecting fruits in spring and field are to cultivate strong seedlings, use fruit hormone and vibration pollination during flowering. In addition to saline or extra-arid land, irrigation is controlled during flowering. Foliar application of fertilizer during flowering.
5. Diseases and pests To prevent the detoxification of tomatoes, attention should be paid to the prevention of damping-off and damping-off during the seedling period, and attention should be paid to the prevention and treatment of umbilical wax, small tigers and earthworms. The onset of diseases in the field in the north mainly includes late blight, viral disease, spot blight, and early blight. There are mainly bacterial wilt, virus disease, early blight, and leaf mold in the south. In addition, it is prone to diseases such as umbilical rot, sunburn, fruit cracking and malformation. Insect pests in the field include aphids and bollworms.
6. Fruits Harvested tomatoes can be harvested approximately 60 days after planting. Fresh fruit market is best harvested during the conversion period or semi-mature period. Storage or long-distance transportation is best harvested during the white mature period. The processing of tomatoes is best harvested at the ripening stage. Timely early harvesting can be used in the morning market to increase the previous production and output value, and it is also conducive to the growth and development of fruit spikes on the upper part of the plant. When the tomato is harvested, the stem must be removed to avoid stabbing other fruits. After the tomato is harvested, it must be graded and packaged according to its size, color, and fruit shape, with or without lesions, etc., in order to improve its product quality.
In order to speed up the ripening of the tomato, increase the red ripeness of the fruit, to mention the morning market, the production of commonly used ethephon for artificial ripening. Ripening can be done on plants or after harvesting. Plant ripening can be applied manually with 1000ppm ethephon or a small sprayer directly spraying white ripe fruit (note that it can not be sprayed on the leaves to prevent phytotoxicity).
After about 4 days, it will turn red. Post-harvest ripening can use 2000ppm ethephon to soak fruit for 1 to 2 minutes, then store it at about 25Â°C and ripen it for about 4 to 5 days. After harvesting ripening must strictly control the temperature, slower than 20 Â°C ripening, below 8 ~ 10 Â°C susceptible to frost damage, more than 30 Â°C also easily lead to rot. Before the last batch of fruits matured, the whole plant could be sprayed with 2000-4000ppm of ethephon. Although the leaves had phytotoxicity, the fruits could be harvested 4 to 6 days earlier.
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