Love avocado is of good quality, strong resistance, and easy to manage. Since 2002, our town has begun to promote pollution-free production technology. Although this technology has reduced the number of pesticides used, the control effect is still higher than the conventional management, the output is slightly increased, and the output value is obviously higher than the conventional management. In 2004, we reported the results of the promotion to the Tangshan Municipal Government and won the second prize for promotion of science and technology in the city. The production characteristics and cultivation techniques of Aikai pear are summarized below. Avocado is a late-maturing variety with thick flesh, delicate meat, less stone cells, high sugar content, good taste, and excellent fruit quality. It is a sand pear system with strong disease resistance. Flowering is easy, grafting can be flowered in the year, results can be obtained in the second year, self-results can be fruited, and when the fruit is small, the fruit is particularly large.
Pollution-free cultivation of technical principles
In an orchard suitable for pollution-free production, dwarf dense planting, slender spindles below crowns and modified crown-shaped plastics are used. Pre-harvest application of organic fertilizer to increase tree storage nutrition and other measures to achieve early high-yield, stable production; the use of Jinfeng pear as a pollination tree, thinning fruit, fruit bagging, delayed harvest and other measures to improve fruit quality; through the pest Prevent and control the use of lime sulfur, Bordeaux mixture and other mineral pesticides, avermectin and other biological pesticides and low-toxicity pesticides during the critical period, combined with agricultural, artificial control, bagging and other measures to reduce the number of pesticides used to reduce pesticide residues, to achieve Pollution-free production.
Technological Measures and Main Techniques Adopted in Different Periods of Pollution-free Cultivation
1. Love Avocados do a clean period of orchard dormancy, thoroughly clean the fallen leaves, diseased fruit, cut off the diseased branches, burn the fallen fruit, old bark.
Love avocado cultivar spacing 2 meters 3 meters using a small crown tree, such as slender spindle-shaped, improved small crown-shaped, so that the crown can be air and light, balanced fruit placement, 2.5 to 3 meters high canopy. Slender spindle shape, 8 to 10 small main branches, 50 cm above the distance between two main branches on the same side, 70 to 80 angles between the main branch and the center, and control the thickness of the small main branch during the pruning process. One-third of the center is dry and the spacing between the main branches of the same floor is opened. Improved small crown shape, 4 main branches, center to produce large fruiting branches. Remove the dense branches, cross branches, retract the weak branches, flatten the leggy branches, cut off the branches of the pests.
2. Pre-emergence to pre-flowering
Watering and fertilizing Pear tree budding projection crown excavation 30 cm 30 cm 30 cm pit, apply nitrogen-based fertilizers, such as urea or carbon ammonia + humic acid fertilizers, accounting for 1/3 of the annual topdressing, After watering.
Before the budding of pests and diseases began, the skin of branches and branches was scraped off, smeared with 9281, and the diseased skin was burned. The stems were sprayed with 3 to 5 Baume degree lime sulfur compounds to eliminate the diseases such as dry rot, rot, and rotenstein. After budding, the inspection orchard often inspected the orchards to cut off the diseased leaves and buried them deeply. Black spot and rust disease can be sprayed with 800 times the amount of thiophanate-methyl, when the spider mites adult overwintering 60%, 100%, respectively, when the spray 8000 times Qisuo Su (avermectin, Insect grams ) Control red spiders; Insects sprayed 2.5% of hyperosmotic imidae forest 1500 times to control pear pods during the inflorescence separation period; Sprayed when wintering adult larvae emerged spawning, and spray 5% schizophyllin (avermectin, insects)èž¨ grams) 8000 times.
3. Flowering Love Pear blossoms leave 2 or 3 flowers with sparse blossoms. Artificial pollination or bee-assisted pollination is used. In the evening and morning, sticks are blown with wooden sticks. Under the tree, auxiliary plastics are collected to collect the beetles and eliminate them collectively. Flowering artificially catch 3 to 5 days, can control the harm, can spray 1500 times in the morning to love green treasure, control the beetle to eat young leaves and flowers.
4. After the young fruit is in fruiting period, fruit thinning begins. Leave 10% more for the strain loading, leave a large, positive fruit shape, and remove fruit that is small and eaten by insects. When the size of the baby's thumb is 800 times that of thiophanate-methyl. The bag is made of black double bag (or newspaper bag, plastic food bag with small holes). If it does not finish within two days, then it will be sprayed once again. The vent opening on the bottom corner is open, and the fruit is suspended in the bag to avoid friction with the bag and the bag is tightly closed to prevent rain and insects from entering the bag. In serious orchards where Tenebrio occur, try to use transparent paper bags or plastic bags. After flowering, spray 5% Qi Qi Su, control pear wood lice, aphids. Pygmy lice should be controlled before secretion of mucus. When the pear orchard cracks occur in the bark, 40% of the speed of the spray is culled 1500 times, killing the female adults, eggs, and newly hatched chicks.
5. Apply nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers mainly composed of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers during the fruit expansion period. Fertilizer accounts for 1/2 of the annual topdressing amount, supplements the needs of the tree, pours water into the water, promotes fruit enlargement, and uses bamboo sticks to hang branches to prevent fruit. Severe pressure branches drooping cause chapped, at the same time sparse useless leggy branches, canopy air and light, cultivating and weeding.
In early June, methylthiobutramine was used to control black spots, ring veins, black spot, spray 1500 times of moth crickets, control red spiders and pears, and use adult sex traps to trap and kill adult pears. Suspend a 40 meter 40 meter suspension. Flappers are changed once a month. In the end of June, 5% of Qi Yuesuo was sprayed 8,000 times. Mucus secretion should be sprayed with 300 times the detergent solution before spraying. In early July, during the active period of the larvae in the pear orchard, the enemy was killed 2000 times and sprayed 1:1:200 times Bordeaux mixture to prevent scab, ring rot and black spot. In mid-July, 5% zirconia 8000 times + diflubenzuron III 1000 times, control of red spider, pear, pear hibiscus. In early August, the 1:1:200 Bordeaux mixture was sprayed. In the middle and late August, the enemy killed 2,000 times in the first generation of the pear orchard and during the active period of the larvae.
6. Fruits from near-mature stage to harvest stage In late August, dig 30 cm, 30 cm, and 30 cm into humic acid fertilizer and compound fertilizer. Fertilizer accounts for 1/2 of the annual top-dressing amount and is watered. Nimodipine injection 800 times + potassium dihydrogen phosphate 0.3%. In early September, the grass was tied to the trunk to trap overwintering pests. After falling leaves, they were burned and destroyed to eliminate the source of overwintering insects. Stop the medication 30 days before picking.
At the end of September, organic fertilizer was applied to the whole garden, and 1.5 to 2 kg of organic fertilizer was applied per kilogram of fruit and shallowly turned 20 to 30 cm and watered.
7. Picking period The fruit is picked in mid-late and late October. The shank is cut with a stalk, cut and stored in a low-temperature ventilated place. After harvesting, spraying urea 0.5% ~ 1%, restore the function of the leaves, completely clear the diseased leaves, diseased fruit, buried deeply.
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