First, pest control
There are three kinds of mosses: fruit moss, apple claw claw, and hawthorn leaf blade. In our area, apple all palm claws and fruit moss are the main species.
1 Life history occurs 9-10 generations a year. Ruoqiang is wintering around the cracks in tree bark, tree holes and soil in the base of trunk, litter, blind spots, short fruit branches and buds. When the flower buds of apple blossoms in early spring expand, the overwintering eggs begin to hatch and the hatching is relatively neat. Activities began in late March and moved from the lower part to the upper part. In April, a large number of activities were transferred to the loose scales of flower buds and began to harm. From July to August, the generations are overlapping and mixed, and a variety of insect states occur. When the high temperature and drought are favorable to reproduction, the trees will begin to fall to the wintering place in the middle and late August.
2 Harmful symptoms mainly cause damage to flower buds. In severe cases, flower buds cannot be opened and there is mucus. The young fruit is damaged and irregular rust spots appear in the fruit pods. The nutrition in the leaves is absorbed, and a large number of fallen leaves are caused in severe cases.
3 Prevention and treatment In late October, after fruit harvesting, scrape the skin and destroy the wintering sites of leafhoppers. Deep plowing of the orchards, and picking up dead branches and rotten fruits outside the park, burning them together. The whole park sprayed 3 to 5 degrees of lime sulfur solution once. From late March to mid-April, the entire park sprayed 2 to 3 degrees of lime sulfur solution to reduce the population base. In the middle and late August, the grass was tied at the main trunk and main branch of the trunk to lure the tree and burned outside the park in October.
2. Spring feet
1 The life history is one year old. The winter ewes pass through the summer and the eclosion begins in late March. The larvae begin to damage in April.
2 Harmful symptoms mainly threaten young leaves and fruits, and wintering sites are mainly in the soil of the tree tray.
3 Prevention of deep fall in autumn, and spraying 2000 times of omethoate, etc. to kill the tree pests. At the end of February, put a piece of adhesive on the 30cm smooth surface of the trunk. A 30-cm-wide membrane was bundled on the trunks of Populus simonii and Populus simonii in the shelter forest around the forest and captured manually in the early morning. Before flowering, spray 3 to 5 degrees of lime sulfur biopesticide or monocrotophos, kill the enemy.
3. Codling moth
1 The life history is 1 to 3.5 generations a year, with diapause. The mature larvae live over the winter in the old skin, diseased skin, cracks, and trunk areas.
2 Harmful symptoms In late March, the mature larvae spawned on the leaves when they first laid eggs. At this time, they are young fruit, the fruit surface is multi-pilose, and as the fruit grows, the fruit surface is smooth and the eggs are produced in large quantities in the fruit. On the most favorite apples produced by Huang Xiaoshuai. The first generation of the fruit period in our district is from late May to the middle of June. The first generation was dehydrated from the end of July to the beginning of August, and drilled into the trunk under the skin to produce the larvae. The second generation larvae hatched at the end of August. If it is harmful, it will be the third-generation peak emergence period in mid-to-late September, followed by drilling into the cracked skin, diseased skin, and fruit in the winter.
3 Prevent and cure the spring, scrape the old to control the rot, destroy the overwintering place of the codling moth, and loosen the root of the 5 to 10 cm soil layer of the pine tree to freeze and suffocate 5% of the ground eggs. Remove the dead branches, rotten leaves, infested fruit, and diseased fruits in the orchard, and take out the orchard deeply buried or burned, and fundamentally reduce the cardinal number of the codling moth. In the middle and late May, bundles of sacks were placed on the smooth surface of the trunk to cause a man-made maggot in the pupa. The larvae were killed every two days and the larvae were reduced. In May, June, August and September, it was found that the fruit was buried deep in the field.
Starting from the beginning of April, 3 adult traps are hung in every 667 square meters, and every morning, observe and remove the insects to kill them. The attractant is 3 cm away from the surface of the water and is continuously filled with water to prevent evaporation and reduce the effect of attracting insects. The attractant should be replaced once every 15 days.
Black light can also be used to seduce.
Emergence period of each generation of adults (the first generation at the end of April to the beginning of May after flowering), the egg hatching period (the first generation of early May, the second generation of the first eight months of August) sprayed one insecticide.
4. Locusts (mainly yellow bastard)
1 The life history takes place every year for 10 generations, wintering at the shoots and shoots, and wintering at the wrinkles of buds or short fruit branches. In the bud, the wintering eggs begin to hatch. The newly hatched nymphs are concentrated on the dew-green spot and feed on the hazards. After the apples are spread, they climb onto the leaflets to harm them. In late May, the new shoots will be harmed and the damage will end in June-July. In the case of high density of insect populations, winged pupae are produced within the pelican colony and migrate within the orchard. By the end of July, a large number of winged cockroaches have migrated to the weeds to breed, and in October they have again produced winged cockroaches to fly to the orchards, lay their eggs, and lay eggs for winter.
2 Prevention and control of biological: In summer, there are many natural enemies of locusts, including ladybugs, grasshoppers, and food flies. At this time, orchard spraying should be reduced to protect natural enemies. Chemical control: focus on the prevention and control of aphids overwintering eggs hatching period, the commonly used agents are 48% of Loester EC 1000 to 1500 times, 10% of the net wettable powder 3000 to 4000 times liquid.
Second, disease prevention
1. Rot disease
1 Symptoms occurred mostly in trunk, main branches, collaterals, and frozen-injured parts. The diseased part was red-brown, slightly raised, water-stained, and the tissues were soft. The diseased department often sheds yellow-brown sap. The diseased skin is easily peeled off and has an alcoholic taste. In later stages, the diseased part of the body shrinks and sinks, resulting in pale yellow spores. In severe cases, it causes large bark to rot and die or the whole plant rots and dies.
2 The occurrence of regular tree weakness and cold damage on small trees is prone to the disease.
3 Prevention and control Strengthen management, reduce tree load, clean orchard, scrape and treat lesions, and smear with green wind 95. Increase the input of organic fertilizers, increase tree vigor, and improve the disease resistance of trees.
2. Dry rot
1 Symptoms The victims of the trees suffered from scattered surfaces with damp, irregular dark brown spots on the branches, and thick brown mucus overflowed from the diseased areas. In severe cases, many dead bark tissues all died. In the end, they could rot to the xylem, causing the entire trunk to shrink and die, and the trunk would not die quickly.
2 Prevention and control Strengthen cultivation and management, protect trees, and prevent injuries. Scratch the green wind 95, spray 3~5 degrees lime sulfur to protect the trunk.
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