Peach trees need to achieve high quality and high yield for successive years, and careful management of flowers and fruits is very important. Many fruit growers only pay attention to conventional pruning, fertilization and pest control before fruit harvesting, while neglecting the direct management of flowers and fruits often results in excessive flowering and fruit falling, which affects the number of high yield and high quality fruit in peach trees. Some problems existing in production and solutions are summarized as follows:
First, there is a problem
1. A large number of fertilizer fertilization during flowering period, large-scale application of fast-acting chemical fertilizers, resulting in long shoots prosperous, making flowers and young fruit less nutritious, causing flowering and fruit falling; flowering irrigation reduces soil temperature, affecting root absorption and normal operation of nutrients, is not conducive to Flowering fruit.
2. Poor pollination rate, low fruit setting rate, unreasonable allocation of pollination tree, insufficient pollen, lack of attention to orchard bee feeding and artificially assisted pollination during flowering period, plus vulnerability to low temperature, dry hot wind and locust, beetle, flower rot, etc. Cause pollination fertilization and young fruit development, resulting in a large number of flowers and young fruit within 1 to 4 weeks after the Xiehua.
3. Sluggish fruit does not strictly load a large amount of fruit trees, branches, fruit size and other reasonable fruit thinning. The fruit thinning time is relatively late, and even Li Yan's physiological fruiting period, leaving a large amount of fruit, unreasonable nutrient distribution, hormone imbalance, resulting in a small fruit, color, affecting the fruit quality and flower bud differentiation in the coming year.
4. Do not pay attention to fruit bagging lack understanding of peach fruit bagging, that the peach fruit growth period is short, bagging is not necessary, or afraid of trouble, that bagging time is not cost-effective, resulting in lower quality of the fruit quality, affecting returns.
5. Fruit early harvest phenomenon Most farmers believe that the sooner the fruits are harvested, the better they can sell a good price. As a result, when peaches 6 and 7 mature, they begin to harvest prematurely, resulting in the lowest sugar content and poor coloring of fruits, especially Late harvest of late peaches has seriously affected the increase of fruit yield and flavor.
6. After fruit collection, management fruits are allowed to be harvested and managed after being loosened. They are often harmed by pests such as red spider, dusty fly, leaf leaf moth, and bacterial perforation disease, which damages the leaves and affects the quality of flower bud differentiation and tree nutrient accumulation. .
7. Improper pruning, canopy closure only attaches importance to winter cuts and light summer cuts. Improper pruning methods, heavy cuts on the backbone branches in winter, and blindly picking the heart in summer, see the tip of the head, leading to more leggy branches on the back of the backbone branches, more shoots of new shoots, poor ventilation and light transmission inside the crown.
Second, the solution
1. Scientific fertilization Irrigation to increase tree nutrients topdressing 2 to 3 times a year, the main chase before flowering fertilizer, strong fruit fertilizer and pre-harvest fertilizer, combined with timely fertigation and fertilization. After the fruit is harvested, the erect legislators are removed in a timely manner to improve the illumination of the internal condyle, which promotes the development of the shoots, maintains the moderate tree-trend, and increases the nutrient accumulation of the tree.
2. Pay attention to flowering pollination flower spray 0.3% borax solution or before and after flowering Shuofeng "481" 500 times, improve pollination fertilization and flower and young fruit resistance to late frost. For pollen-free or pollen-free varieties, artificial pollination or release of pollinating bees should be carried out to increase the fruit setting rate.
3. Strict thinning and fruit setting For varieties with high self-fertilization rates, the fruit should be thinned and sparsely fruited as soon as possible. For the varieties with no pollen or low self-pollination rate, only thinning the fruit is not sparse. Shrubs should end within 2 weeks after flowering.
4. Implementation of Fruit Bagging Fruit bagging can significantly improve fruit surface finish, increase color, reduce pests and pesticide residues, and prevent cracking and sunburn. Late peach varieties in particular should pay attention to fruit bagging. Finely spray a bactericide before bagging and remove the bag 3 to 5 days before harvesting.
5. Push the long pruning to change traditional pruning or topping tips. During the summer cut, the dense shoots and leggy branches are eliminated, especially the large number of lychee shoots drawn from latent shoots or adventitious shoots on the perennial branches of the canopy, leaving 10 to 15 cm topping or shearing, which is beneficial to the internal lichee. The group's updates are rejuvenated without affecting ventilation, light transmission and fruit surface coloration.
6. Sparsely picked leaves increased the growth and development period of fruits, and timely removal of standing legumes and branches affecting the coloring of fruit; about 7 days before harvest, remove 2 to 3 leaves shading around the fruit; to facilitate fruit coloring and improve quality.
7. The quality, flavor and color of the peach fruit harvested in batches during the appropriate period of time are formed during the development of the tree. After harvest, the peach fruit is almost not improved by ripening. Therefore, the peach fruit must not be harvested prematurely. Due to inconsistent maturity of fruits in different parts of the same tree, it is recommended to harvest in stages and reduce losses.
8. Strengthen Pest Control Winter pruning, cutting off dead branches of pests and diseases, together with defoliants, bring out orchards, burn them centrally or deepen them, and reduce the number of disease and insects overwintering. From late April to mid-August, insecticides and acaricides are sprayed once a month to prevent and treat peaches, red spiders, peach aphids, peach borerworms and leaf miners.
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