After mastery of various habits and breeding habits, they can be cultured. The specific farming methods and methods should be based on different purposes and sizes. The culture methods can generally be divided into two categories: outdoor breeding and indoor breeding. Indoor breeding, according to the different culture containers, there is a pot raising method, basket raising law; outdoor farming, common pond raising method, trench breeding method, fertilizer heap breeding method, swamp breeding method, garbage absorption field breeding method, garden And farmland breeding, ground greenhouse circulation breeding, semi-basement breeding, civil defense breeding, plastic greenhouse cultivation, ventilation and humidification breeding. Although the culture containers and the sites vary, the basic principles are the same, that is, scientific breeding. The pot raising method is also only suitable for small-scale farming. However, it has the advantages of simple farming, easy care, easy movement, easy control of temperature and humidity, and easy observation and statistics. It is suitable for scientific and experimental breeding.
1. The pot raising method can use pots, pots and pots, and pots and pots that are not used for potting. Due to the small volume and limited volume of vessels such as pots and tanks, it is generally suitable for the breeding of some species that are small in size and difficult to escape, such as ejaculation, small double-breasted plagues, dark-backed heterolabies, and the like. However, the large, easy-to-escape maggots of the genus Cyclopus are often not suitable for breeding in this way. Pot culture is also limited to small-scale farming. However, it has the advantages of simple farming, easy care, easy movement, easy control of temperature and humidity, easy observation and statistics, and is very suitable for scientific experiments in breeding.
The amount of material contained in the basin depends on the size of the basin and the number of lice raised. Commonly used flower pots and other containers can be used to raise 10-70 pieces of Aichi Aisheng, but the feed put in the pot should not exceed 3/4 of the pot depth. Due to the small size of the flower pot, the temperature and humidity in the bowl are easily affected by changes in the external environment and produce large changes. The soil or feed on the surface of the basin is easy to dry and the temperature is also easy to change. Therefore, in the use of pot cultivation is to be the main, under the premise of ensuring ventilation, to try to maintain the basin of soil or feed the appropriate temperature and humidity, such as can be covered with curtains, straw, plastic film, etc., often spray water to keep Its sufficient humidity. It should also be noted that in the selection of containers such as pots, jars, cans, etc., must not use containers that have been filled with pesticides, fertilizers or other chemicals. So as not to cause death.
2. The box and basket culture method can use abandoned packaging boxes, wicker baskets, bamboo baskets, etc., but it should not be kept in containers filled with pesticides or chemicals, baskets, etc., nor can it contain aromatic resins and tannins. The wood is used to process breeding kits. Because these materials are harmful to earthworms, they are not diluted with paints containing lead or phenol sleeves. These materials are harmful to earthworms. The size and shape of boxes and baskets should be easy to handle and easy to manage. Generally, the area of â€‹â€‹boxes and baskets should not exceed 1 square meter.
The specifications for the rearing box are as follows: 50 cm X 35 cm X 15 cm; 60 cm X 30 cm X 20 cm; 60 cm X 40 cm X 20 cm; 60 cm X 50 mm X 20 cm; 60 cm X 30 cm X 25 cm; 45 cm x 25 cm x 30 cm; 40 cm x 35 centimeters x 30 cm. There should be drainage and ventilation holes at the bottom and side of the culture box. For ease of handling, handle handles can be mounted on both sides of the box. The hole diameters of the drainage and ventilation holes at the bottom of the box and the side of the box are 0.6 to 1.5 centimeters; the area occupied by the box holes is generally 20% to 35% of the box wall area. In addition to ventilated drainage, the box hole can also control the temperature inside the box, so as not to rise too high due to fermentation of the feed in the box. In addition, part of the earthworm feces will also slowly leak from the box hole to facilitate the separation of earthworm feces and earthworms. The thickness of the feed in the box should be appropriate. It can be adjusted according to different seasons and temperature and humidity. The thickness of the feed must be thickened in winter. However, if the feed is loaded too much, the feed is too bad, the feed is too little, and the water is easily lost. , dry exercise, thus affecting the growth and reproduction of earthworms. In order to reduce the amount of moisture in the feed in the box, and maintain a certain humidity, in addition to spraying water, the surface of the feed may be covered with plastic film, waste cardboard or straw, broken sacks, and the like. Of course, the breeding box can also be replaced by a plastic box, which is inexpensive and durable and not easily rot.
To increase the scale of farming, the same size of terrariums can be stacked to form a three-dimensional culture, which can reduce the site area, increase the number and yield of breeding. For large-scale intensive farming, indoor multi-layer breeding bed breeding can be adopted to make full use of the limited space and space, increase breeding quantity and yield, and be easy to manage and cultivate for years. The multi-layer feeding bed can be reinforced with steel, angle iron or bamboo or wood scaffolding, or bricks, cement boards, etc. The breeding box is placed on a breeding bed, generally 4 to 5 layers are suitable. It is inconvenient for operation and management, too low and not economical. A passageway (approximately 1.5 meters) should be left between the two rows of bed frames for easy access and management by the farmer. In the room where the breeding bed is placed, an intake valve shall be provided, and an exhaust wind tunnel shall be provided on the roof so as to facilitate gas exchange, keep the indoor air fresh, and facilitate the growth and reproduction of earthworms. In winter, indoor temperature should be taken into account. Warming and insulation measures can be adopted, such as the use of solar energy, waste steam from nearby factories and thermal power plants, or various heating facilities. Lighting facilities should be installed in the culture room for night lighting to prevent escape. In addition to the facilities mentioned above, temperature and humidity tables (self-recorded or intuitive), sprayers, bamboo clamps, tungsten-iodine lamps (or halogen lamps), mesh screens (hole diameter 4 mm), and gears should be provided indoors. And other equipment.
The density of box cultured earthworms is generally controlled at 4 000 to 9 000 per square meter in a single layer. Over denseness will affect the feeding, activities and growth and reproduction, and if the density is too thin, the economic benefits will be poor. In order to reduce the evaporation of feed layer moisture, it can be covered with plastic film, sacks, straw mats, curtains and so on. When the temperature drops to -1 Â°C in winter, care should be taken to warm up and keep warm in a timely manner so that the indoor temperature is maintained at more than 18 Â°C. To prevent the aphid from freezing and freezing, the grip of the culture room must be kept in a definite manner, and the culture room must be kept indoors. Ventilation holes should be opened 2 or 3 times to keep air flowing and fresh. Summer is hot, when the temperature rises, you can often spray cold water with a sprayer to moisturize cooling, and the intake valve hole should be fully open ventilation.
When the cockroach grows, the density of cockroaches in the box should be reduced. They are farmed in a 60-cm-long, 40-cm-wide, and 20-cm-high breeding tank. Each box is equipped with about 2,000 children of Aichi Shengsheng (Taiping No. 2 or Beixing No. 2). At a temperature of 20 Â°C, a humidity of 75% to 80%, and feed conditions are sufficient, it can be increased to 18,000 after 5 months of culture. In box or basket three-dimensional culture, attention should be paid to the distance between the upper and lower sides of the box to facilitate the circulation of air.
This three-dimensional breeding bed breeding method has many advantages: full use of space, small footprint, easy management, labor savings, more economical, and its high production efficiency. According to the relevant laboratory tests, this method of breeding, the four-month reproduction rate is more than 100 times that of flatland culture, and the time required from calving to adulthood is greatly shortened, and the time for basic feed conversion is greatly shortened. The moisture in the bed can often be maintained at about 75% to about 80%, which is relatively stable. The raising temperature of the breeding bed can be kept below 30 Â°C. And after two months of accumulation, the feed has a stacking depth of only 8 centimeters and is relatively uniform. It is also very convenient to manage and add feed and to treat excrement. In short, the adoption of three-dimensional box culture method has higher economic benefits and many advantages, and it is also one of the commonly used methods.
3 . The advantages of the semi-subterranean greenhouses, air defense fortifications or underground air-raid shelters, caves, and cave culture methods are that they can make full use of idle civil air defense projects, do not occupy land and other facilities, and the dark and damp conditions in air-raid shelters, caves and caves, temperature and humidity Small changes, but also easy to keep warm. However, breeding facilities must be equipped with lighting equipment in these facilities. Of course, pits, cellars, greenhouses, mushroom cultivation rooms, breeding snails and other facilities can also be raised crickets, and crickets can also be kept with the snails. Breeding snails on the soil surface, snail faeces and food debris can also be used as a good feed for crickets.
For the construction of the semi-underground greenhouse, leeward and dry slopes should be selected, and ditches 1.5 to 16. meters deep, 10 to 20 meters long and 4.5 meters wide should be dug underground, and the center should be 30 to 45 centimeters wide. The bandits are not dug and left as pedestrian passages for easy management. One side of the greenhouse rises one metre above the ground and the other rises 30 centimetres above the ground to form a slope. The gable can be made of brick or mud to keep it warm. The exposed slopes are searched with double-layer membranes. Absorb heat and cover the insulation with a curtain at night. In cold weather in winter, it is possible to add fire in a semi-basement, add heat to heat up, and add smoke to the stove to eliminate harmful emissions. The room temperature is generally up to 10 degrees Celsius and the bed temperature is kept above 12 - 18 Â°C. In sunny weather, the room temperature can reach above 22 Â°C. The bottom of the breeding bed can be first layered with a layer of feed about 10 cm thick, and then can be covered with a layer of the same thick soil, which can be layered alternately until it is level with the surface. Horse manure, sawdust and other fermented products can be deposited in the central area of â€‹â€‹the bed. Vents can be opened on the gables on both sides of the greenhouse. This breeding method can get better results.
4 . The ground greenhouse circulation breeding method can use existing winter greenhouses and greenhouses, such as sweet potato seedlings, water peanuts, water lettuces, water hyacinths and other winter seedlings to keep warm in winter. An overwintering culture bed was constructed to grow crops and alfalfa together in the greenhouse. This not only enabled the plants and animals to effectively overwinter, but also enabled the materials and energy to be fully and economically and efficiently recycled.
Generally choose to shelter from the wind, go to the high slopes of the sun, flat pits or dig pits to build beds. The bed is 10 meters long, 2 meters wide and 0.7 meters deep; the front wall of the bed is 0.3 meters above the ground, the back wall is 1.5 meters above the ground, and the bed depth is 0.5 meters. On both sides of the area A is a farming bed, each with a width of 0.8m. A layer of feed about 10cm thick is laid on the bottom of the bed, and then a layer of vegetable garden soil of the same thickness is laid so that they are layered alternately. Until flush with the surface. In the central B area, raw fermented materials such as raw horse dung are piled up. In Area A, it is possible to plant overwintering crops such as sweet potatoes and broad beans, and to stocke pupa. Ventilation holes were left on both sides of the greenhouse, and a double-layer plastic film was used to cover the sunny side. Wind-proof nets were fastened every 7-8 cm. In severe winter, straws and curtains were covered at night. Around the hotbed, dig ditches at 1m outside to prevent water accumulation. A small door is left on the eastern side of the greenhouse to make management personnel appear. Adopting this breeding method can obtain better results; because in the hotbed, animals, plants and microorganisms in the ecological circulatory system constitute more efficient use of materials and energy for recycling and more effective mutual benefit and symbiosis.
5. Ventilation, warming, and humidification are the most common methods for earthworms to inhabit soil or feed layers at depths of 10 to 20 cm. Most feeds for earthworms are food residues, waste from agricultural and by-products and livestock products, or after fermentation. Substance etc. You will take food through this hole in depth again. However, these organic substances are decomposed by the anaerobic microorganisms in the soil into carbon dioxide and nitrogen. These all consume the oxygen in the soil and have the tendency of reducing soil inlays. The earthworms must rely on oxygen to breathe, so the earthworms are in the reducing soil. It is impossible to survive and inhabit. In the natural state, earthworms rely on air from the atmosphere to diffuse in the ground to breathe. In order to further improve the breeding habits of cockroaches, overcoming the contradictions and shortcomings of oxygen deficiency, temperature and humidity instability, high-density culture in a limited area requires a large amount of feed, and in order to prevent the lack of oxygen in the soil, There are a lot of fine-hole pipes underground in the culture room, which can slowly send air to the soil or feed to prevent the soil from reducing. Because of phlegm, oxygen is usually used to breathe in water dissolved in body surface. Your body surface must always be in a wet state. Ventilation and humidification of the breeding method can obtain higher yield and considerable economic benefits. This method of ventilation and humidification can be automatically adjusted and controlled by an instrument or a computer, and is a relatively advanced breeding method.
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