Water requirement characteristics of different vegetables

For different vegetables, the underground water absorption ability of roots and the water consumption capacity of the aboveground leaves are different. If the root system is developed, the water absorption capacity will be strong, and the leaf area will be large, and the transpiration effect of vegetables will be weak. Therefore, different vegetables have different moisture requirements. Below we briefly introduce the water requirement characteristics of relatively more vegetables grown in production. Melon vegetables Cucumber: The roots of cucumbers are shallow, the leaves are large, and the above ground consumes much water. The requirements for air humidity and soil moisture are very high. Suitable soil relative humidity is 85% to 90%, and air relative humidity is 70% to 90%. Although cucumbers are hi wet, they are afraid of earthworms. Especially when the ground temperature is low, soil moisture is prone to disease. Watermelon: The watermelon root is a straight root system with a deep and wide distribution. The watermelon needs a lot of water, but its air humidity requirement is relatively low, and 50%-60% is appropriate. Although the leaves are larger, the surfaces of the leaves are waxy and the transpiration slows down. Although the watermelon is drought-tolerant but not tolerant to moisture, the humidity is not good for the increase of fruit ripeness and sweetness. Bitter gourd: The root system of bitter gourd is developed and its water absorption ability is strong. Bitter gourds need a large amount of water, especially during the flowering period. If the water supply is insufficient, the plants will not grow well. However, the bitter gourd is moist and drought-tolerant, and it is beneficial to growth under conditions of 80%-85% of air humidity and soil moisture. Zucchini: Zucchini has a strong root system and strong ability to absorb water. Although it has large leaves and strong transpiration, it is more tolerant to drought. If continuous drought can cause wilting, the soil moisture requirement is high, but it should not be too high to prevent the occurrence of disease. Solanaceous vegetables, tomatoes: tomatoes are deep-rooted crops, developed roots, strong water absorption, plant stems and leaves lush, strong transpiration, air relative humidity requirements of 45% -50% is appropriate. Tomatoes belong to semi-drought-tolerant vegetables that are afraid of waterlogging. Eggplant: Eggplant root system is developed, the main root is thick and strong, and the water absorption ability is strong. However, eggplant plants are tall, large and thin leaves, strong transpiration, eggplant grows well under high temperature and high humidity conditions, large demand for water, eggplant hi water afraid of drought, but the air humidity is too high, long-term over 80% will Cause disease. Pepper: Capsicum roots are underdeveloped, with less roots, shallow soils, and weak absorption capacity. Although the water requirement per plant is small, the peppers are not tolerant to drought and are not resistant to water. They require strict water supply and require regular supply of water to grow well. It is required to moisten loose soil. The general relative humidity of air is 60%-80%, which is conducive to the growth of stems and leaves and flowering and fruit setting. Beans beans: beans are straight roots, deep roots, strong water absorption ability, able to withstand a certain degree of drought, but not tolerant, like the humidity of the soil conditions. The optimum soil moisture of kidney bean is 60%-70% of the maximum water capacity in the field, and the relative humidity of the air is 80%. Water Management During Vegetable Seedling In recent years, with the advancement of industrialized seedlings, more and more vegetable farmers directly order finished product seedlings from nurseries, but in various places, there are still many vegetable farmers to raise their own seedlings for cost saving. How should moisture be managed? First, pour enough water on the day before sowing to ensure that the nutritious soil is fully wetted. Before vegetable seeds are unearthed, high humidity conditions are required. In order to promote seed germination, most vegetables need to be soaked before germination. After sowing, the water needed by the seedlings to unearth comes mainly from the bottom of the water, and if watering after sowing, watering is too easy to cause bad seeds, so before sowing, the bottom of the water must be filled. The vegetable grower can set the nursery bed into a pool shape, and then fill the nursery bed with water, so that the moisture on the seedbed can be soaked and sowed in time. If the seedlings are planted in the plug tray, the seedling tray can be filled with the nursery substrate and then poured. Water to meet all the water needed before seed emergence. Therefore, it is recommended that the vegetable farmer should pour enough water on the day before sowing to fully soak the nutrient soil. Second, keep the seedbed moist during emergence. Before emergence, in order to keep the seedlings unearthed quickly and neatly, be sure to keep the beds moist, but it is best not to water. In order to ensure the humidity of the seedbed, vegetable farmers take two measures. First, cover the mulch after sowing. After sowing, it is sealed with a plastic film for 2 to 3 days. This can reduce the evaporation of water and maintain the water. It can prevent the surface of the nursery bed from drying out when unearthed, which is unfavorable for unearthing. When 2/3 of the seed cotyledons are unearthed, the mulch film is promptly peeled off. It should be noted that check whether the seedlings have been excavated must be timely, especially in the summer hot season, due to the high temperature in the upper part of the film, if the film is not timely, it is easy to burn the seedlings; of course, after the film is removed, in order to ensure the humidity of the seedbed, it can be set up Small sheds moisturize, but also a small amount of fine soil moisture can be applied. Second, spray water properly, but prevent excessive water from causing bad seeds. In the process of seedling unearthing, many vegetable farmers are anxious to make large amounts of water when the seedbed soil is a little dry. This is very easy because the amount of watering is large, which causes the oxygen in the matrix to be squeezed out by the water, so that the respiration of the seed cannot be performed normally. And cause bad species. The correct approach is: bed soil too dry immediately sprinkle with watering can, but keep the seedbed moist soil is appropriate, take a small amount of water spray method. For example, in summer and autumn, when the seedlings are raised during the high temperature season, the moisture in the seedbed evaporates quickly, and sometimes it can be sprayed 2-3 times a day. Again, proper control of water before the emergence of seedlings after emergence. After the seedlings are flushed, root water can be appropriately poured to facilitate hair rooting. But at the beginning, the leaves are smaller, the transpiration is less, and the demand for water is also smaller. With the growth rate of seedlings growing faster, especially in the late spring and autumn seasons, at this time, in the case of high temperature and high humidity, seedlings are prone to length, form high seedlings, unfavorable to the formation of strong seedlings, therefore, should be appropriate Water control anti-prosperity. Of course, how to water the seedlings, in addition to soil conditions, should also be based on the growth of seedlings. How to water according to seedling growth? Take the cucumber, Shouguang City, Sun Jiaji Street, Songtai Village has many years of nursery experience, Sister Wang told reporters that after the emergence of cucumber, when the cotyledons small up and erect, indicating that seedlings lack of water, timely watering; if the cotyledons Flat, green, and hypertrophied, indicating proper moisture. Moreover, watering should be carried out in fine weather to prevent seedlings from becoming infected after watering on rainy days. Finally, water an appropriate amount before planting. Seedling colonization of vegetable seedlings, whether it is in the nursery plots or in the plug seedlings, will appear rooting, rooting and other conditions when transplanting, is not conducive to the slow seedlings after planting and the deep rooting of the seedlings after the slowing, especially for eggplant, etc. For vegetables with early lignification, poor regenerative capacity, and underdeveloped roots and less roots, the damage to the root system must be reduced when planting. Therefore, proper watering should be taken before planting to keep the substrate moist and ensure the seedlings. With soil removed, is conducive to slow seedling after planting. In addition, for cucumbers, watermelons, melons, and eggplants that are grafted, management of water is important, in addition to temperature and light management, before and after grafting. Taking cucumber as an example, we briefly describe the water management of cucumber after 15 days of grafting. 1-3 days after grafting: After grafting, in order to ensure the humidity conditions of the grafted seedlings, small arch sheds are generally set and the grafted seedlings are placed in a shed. 1-3 days after grafting, it is the time for the formation of callus. In this period, the air humidity in the shed must be 100%. The water droplets in the shed should be covered so that the grafted seedlings cannot be seen. 4-6 days after grafting: In this period, the wound healed, and the humidity in the shed can be reduced to about 95%. If the humidity in the small shed is large, a small gap of 5 cm can be opened at the top of the shed, and ventilation can be conducted for 0.5-1 hour to properly reduce the humidity. If the humidity is too low, spray the seedbed space if necessary. 7-10 days after grafting: In this period, the callus has completely healed. Therefore, the humidity in the shed should be reduced to about 90%. At this time, if the humidity is too high, not only the susceptible diseases on the pumpkin cotyledon will cause rotten leaves, but also Cucumber scion is easy to grow many adventitious roots affect the survival of grafted seedlings, grafted seedlings can also cause long, is not conducive to the formation of strong seedlings. Therefore, during this period of time, small arch membranes should be opened 5 centimeters a day, ventilation and dehumidification, generally no longer back. 10-15 days after grafting: Under normal circumstances, about 10 days after grafting, the scions can grow 1-2 cm, glossy, light green leaves, which indicates that the scion and rootstock have completely healed, and the grafted seedlings can be Move out of the shed in time. After removing the grafted seedlings outside the shed, after 2-3 days of adaptation, the first true leaf of the scions can grow to about 3 cm. At this time, the rooted seedlings can be managed to cultivate a robust grafted seedling.

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