As an economic forest, cherries have good planting conditions and cultivation experience in Tianshui. They have been popular for a long time and have achieved good economic and social benefits. However, the problems are still relatively prominent, such as the lack of unified planning, blind development, planting technology is lagging behind, aging species, coupled with the people follow the birth breeding and open field cultivation, extensive management, low yield, low economic efficiency. For a long time, the due economic and social benefits of cherry have not been fully exerted, limiting the great development of production.
1 Cultivation site profile Tianshui is located in the southeastern part of Gansu Province and geographically located at 10435â€² to 10644â€²E and 3405â€² to 3510â€²N, with an average altitude of 1100m and an average annual rainfall of 574mm. The average annual sunshine is 2100 hours, and the sunshine percentage is 46. In the spring and summer, they account for 26.6% and 30.6% of the annual sunshine, 22.6% in winter, and 141-202 days in the frost-free period. They are warm-temperate, semi-humid continental monsoon climate, no summer heat, and no severe winter. The four seasons are distinct; the average annual temperature is about 11Â°C, the extreme maximum temperature is 38.3Â°C, and the minimum temperature is -18.2Â°C. With sufficient sunlight, it is suitable for the growth of a variety of food crops, economic crops, and fruit and vegetable crops. It is known as the "Shangshang Jiangnan".
2 Cultivation Management
2.1 Variety Selection Laiyang dwarf cherry varieties are preferred for protected cultivation. This species is one of the most suitable varieties for conservation cultivation, with strong growth, short body, strong adaptability, early fruiting, excellent quality, large fruit size, brilliant fruit color and high yield. In addition, there are also suitable for dwarf close-growing cultivation of ZY ~ 1, dwarf cherries.
2.2 Coverage time The temperature of the film (stamp) for cherry cultivation is mainly based on the low temperature time and greenhouse facilities required for the cherries to release dormancy. Tianshui area should generally be covered from mid-January to early February, so that the temperature can be kept at 0-7Â°C, which can shorten the dormancy time and increase the temperature in advance.
2.3 Regulation of Environmental Factors
2.3.1 Temperature assurance The proper temperature in a greenhouse is the most critical task in greenhouse management. The daily change in temperature in the greenhouse is the highest at noon during the day and the lowest in the early morning. Strictly preventing nighttime temperatures from rising above normal during the day and sudden increase in temperature. In the greenhouse, according to the different stages of development of the cherry, maintaining a certain temperature difference is beneficial to the growth of the cherry. After coating, the control of the temperature in the greenhouse is the key to the success of cultivation. About 10 days after coating, the temperature in the shed and the temperature in the soil gradually increase, which helps maintain the balance between temperature and soil temperature. The daytime temperature starts at 11 to 12Â°C and rises by 1Â°C every 2 to 3 days. When the flowering period is reached, the daily average temperature is controlled at 10-20Â°C, and the minimum temperature is maintained at 5Â°C. The flowering period of the cherry is more stringent on the temperature requirements, not less than 5 Â°C at night, should be maintained at 8 ~ 10 Â°C; during the day is not higher than 23 Â°C, generally should be maintained at 18 ~ 20 Â°C. Fruit enlargement period, daytime temperature 21-28 Â°C, night 10-12 Â°C, is conducive to the growth and development of young fruit, maintaining a temperature difference of more than 10 Â°C day and night is conducive to fruit coloring. If the temperature is too low during this period, the ripening period will be delayed, but when the temperature is too high, the fruit growth period will be shortened, affecting the fruit size. Do not exceed 30Â°C during the day.
Temperature Control Measures: Warming and Insulation of Greenhouses In addition to well-designed daylighting and insulation facilities when constructing sheds, there should also be temperature-raising facilities such as heating, heating, or electric heating.
2.3.2 Humidity The moisture in the air in the greenhouse mainly comes from the evaporation of the ground and the transpiration of the tree. The high humidity in the air is a major feature of the greenhouse. It is not only easy to cause leggy, but also induces various diseases, affects the light, etc. Therefore, the management of the humidity in the booth is as important as the management of the temperature. From the film to the germination period, the relative humidity in the shed can be maintained at 60% to 80%; the relative humidity of the air in the flowering shed should be 50% to 60%; the fruit swelling period should be 40% to 60%; the fruit coloring and ripening period should be 30%ï½ž 50%. To maintain low air humidity, only through a lot of ventilation and reduce soil moisture regulation. Excessive ventilation will cause a decrease in room temperature. Too low a soil's water capacity will not meet the normal growth of the cherry, so controlling the air humidity is appropriate.
Moisture control measures: The humidity in the greenhouse should be adjusted by combining soil moisture, air humidity and ventilation. The main methods are: ventilation cooling, plastic film covering, straw mulching, night capping of non-woven cotton, moisture absorption, drip irrigation under plastic film, and hole irrigation. Generally no need for humidification in the greenhouse, if necessary, through the underground irrigation, water spray to humidify.
2.3.3 Light cultivation is an essential energy source for plant photosynthesis. The lack of light not only affects the yield of the cherries, but more importantly the quality of the fruits. Therefore, in the facility cultivation, the indoor lighting should meet the needs of cherry growth and development. In addition to the selection of high-quality booths and plastic films, indoor lighting should be used to increase the lighting. Can be retroreflective film in the back wall, such as polyester aluminum film; fruit expansion period in the crown under the reflective film, extend the light time; clean the shed, increase the amount of light; reduce indoor air humidity, reduce the film drop or optional Non-drip film; use fluorescent lamps, incandescent lamps, and agricultural high-pressure mercury lamps.
2.3.4 Carbon dioxide The concentration of carbon dioxide in the air directly affects the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. The content of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is usually 0.03%. At this concentration, the concentration of carbon dioxide is appropriately increased, and the photosynthetic intensity of plants still rises linearly. This shows that the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere does not reach the saturation point required for plant photosynthesis. However, the change in carbon dioxide concentration in the room: after the closed shed at 16 o'clock, as the photosynthesis of the plants weakened, the concentration of carbon dioxide increased until about 5 o'clock the next day. As the sun came out and photosynthesis progressed, the carbon dioxide concentration dropped sharply. By about 7:30, it was reduced to equilibrium with the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and at about 9:00 the carbon dioxide compensation point was reduced to fruit trees. In this case, carbon dioxide can be artificially supplemented. Supplementary methods: the application of solid carbon dioxide fertilizer or carbon dioxide gas fertilizer; kerosene, coal, biogas and other full combustion to release carbon dioxide; increased organic fertilizer, the use of microbial decomposition and release of large amounts of carbon dioxide; sunny morning ventilation supplemented with carbon dioxide.
2.4 Fertilizer Water Management
2.4.1 Fertilization Before planting to the shed or covering the greenhouse, the cherries grow in the field for 3 to 4 years, according to the requirements of field fertilizer and water management. When cherries enter the result period, the supply of fertilizer water will increase with the increase of production. Attention should be paid to the use of basal fertilisers in the autumn, with 20 kg of quality circle fertilizer, 40 kg of biogas water, 0.3 kg of phosphate fertilizer, and 0.8 kg of potassium fertilizer per plant; topdressing fertilizer at the flowering stage, 0.2 kg of urea per plant; after fruit dressing, urea 0.3 kg per plant. Phosphorus fertilizer 0.2kg, potassium fertilizer 0.8kg; spray 2 to 3 times before and after flowering compound fertilizer and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, in order to promote fruit set, enhance the photosynthetic function of leaves.
2.4.2 There is little evaporation of water in protected areas, so watering should be done frequently and with little water to keep the soil moist and aerated. The best is drip irrigation. The drip irrigation pipe is placed under the mulch. The pipe has a small hole for dripping. At the same time, water-soluble fertilizer can be added to the drip to ensure the cherry tree's need for water and nutrients, but also to reduce the air humidity, which is conducive to growth. And results.
2.5 Crown control The protected cultivation has a high density and a small space, leaving 20% â€‹â€‹of space for human activities and preventing canopy closure. First of all, to control the height of growth, it is required to have a height of 40 to 50 cm above the roof of the tree. There are two main methods for controlling the crown:
2.5.1 Chemical control In order to prolong the period of high cherry yield in protected areas, the canopy must be strictly controlled and paclobutrazol is the most effective measure. The first three years of saplings mainly promote growth. For trees between three and four years old, growth must be controlled and the results must be promoted. A certain amount of paclobutrazol can be applied before the spring sprouting. Generally, 1 to 2.5 g per plant, and over-prosperous trees can be applied to 2.5 g. , The weaker Shi 1g, the more prosperous tree Shi 2g, must strictly control the amount. In addition, paclobutrazol can be sprayed at the growth stage with a concentration of 1000 mg/kg, which can be sprayed after mid-May to inhibit shoot growth.
2.5.2 The vegetative growth and reproductive growth of fruit trees are contradictory, and as a result, they can inhibit growth. The cherry fruit has a short growing period. After the fruit has been harvested for a long time, it can restore the nutrition of the tree. Therefore, the load of the fruit tree can be increased without affecting the quality of the fruit. The growth of cherry shoots is mainly in May. At this time, the fruits are fruitful. The nutrition is mostly used for the growth and development of fruits. The shoots can be temporarily stopped from growing. After June, the flower buds differentiate into the flower buds. Therefore, the fruit pressure tree is an effective way to control the crown.
3 Pest control
3.1.1 Brown rot mainly damages the fruit and can also harm flowers, leaves and branches. Before the leaves begin to develop, the young leaves appear brown spots. Afterwards, some black powder occurs along the main veins, causing the leaves to become deformed, gradually invading the petioles, and then invading the base of the filaments, the pedicels or the stigma of the flowers, causing the flowers to die. When the young fruit is sick, brown round spots appear on the fruit surface at the initial stage. Afterwards, the lesion gradually expands, and the flesh turns brown. There is a layer of gray mold on the fruit surface, which has an odor. The pathogens overwinter on diseased branches, leaves, buds, or diseased fruits.
Control methods: 1 combined with pruning, completely remove diseased leaves, branches, stamens, concentrated burning, while deep into the ground, and maintain good ventilation and light conditions within the crown. 2 timely control of pests and diseases, reduce insect population. 3 spray 5 lime sulfur before germination. After spraying, spray 50% carbendazim 1000 times or 70% thiophanate 1000 times. 4 In the greenhouse, chlorothalonil aerosols are released during flower buds and at night after flowering.
3.1.2 Rotten skin disease occurs mostly at the trunk, main lateral branches and tree branches. Lesions are watery, with a rapid longitudinal extension. The diseased skin is dark brown and perishable and flaking.
Control methods: The following measures should be taken to strengthen the cultivation and management, enhance tree vigor, and improve disease resistance, so as to achieve better results.
1 Protect the trunk. In the late autumn, the trunk is painted white with lime slurry, or a straw rope is tied on the trunk and main side branches of the tree to prevent the cherry tree from being frozen. This can reduce the occurrence of the disease.
2 Scratch treatment The symptoms of early onset of the disease are not easy to detect. In the early spring, it is necessary to search carefully. After the discovery, the disease should be scraped with a knife, and then smeared with 70% thiophanate-methyl WP or 40% melphalan WP 50 times. wound. Because cherry trees are easy to flow, they must also be coated with wound protection agents such as plant or animal fats after scraping off the disease and applying medicine.
3.2 Insect pests
3.2.1 The adult fruit of the cherry fruit fly spawns on the fruit surface. There is a slightly concave black spot with a diameter of about 1 mm on the fruit surface. The opening position of the oviposition site is observed. There is an oval gap under the skin and there is 1 egg inside. . The hatched larvae directly harm the flesh in the fruit.
Control methods: 1 cultivating in autumn or early spring to eliminate overwintering insects. 2 adult emergence period (May to June), under the tree spray 50% methyl parathion 1000 times control.
3.2.2 The cherry bees are borne by the old larvae under the ground and overwintered, and the cherry flowers are feathered on the trees in the following year. The spawning is under the flower buds, and the larvae hatch into the fruit surface from the upper end of the young fruit. The pod hole was light brown at the beginning, with a small amount of insect feces nearby, and later turned into a small black spot. The fruit is filled with insect feces and the victim suffers redness and early fall. After the larvae matured, they bite a fruit hole from the stem close to the ground and drill into the soil.
Control methods: 1 timely removal of fruit, eliminate larvae. 2 Till the tree tray. The vast majority of old larvae of cherry real bees are shallow in the soil, usually at 1 to 8 cm above the surface; therefore, plowing can significantly reduce the rate of larvae. 3 eliminate adults. In the initial period of cherry real bees, spraying pyrethroid insecticide can kill the adults of the emergence period. 4 control of newly hatched larvae. When field survey egg hatching rate reaches 5%, conventional insecticides can be sprayed.
Our Surgical Dressing Products is good in quality and competitive in price. We are manufacturer and supplier Surgical Dressing Products following your specific requirement. We are looking forward to your E-mail and establishing cooperative relationship with you! We would provide professional Surgical Dressing with good services for you!
Cotton Products, Plaster Products, Non-Woven Products, Bandage Products
Ningbo Cland Medical Instruments Co., Ltd. , https://www.ruipumedical.com