Mushroom block cultivation management technology

Mushroom block cultivation is the earliest method used in cultivation of mushroom cultivation materials. It began in the early 1970s and led to the development of cultivation of mushroom cultivation materials. It is conducive to the full use of agricultural and forestry leftovers. The production method can be Workshop production can also be planted on a large scale, with a short cycle.
1、Cultivation process bacteria species selection - mother species production - the original species production - cultivar species production - broken bag to do - mycelial healing - color management - mushroom management - harvesting.
2. Mushroom House and Facilities Mushroom cultivation uses multi-purpose mushroom house. Carriage mushroom house, facing north and facing south, 3.5 meters high, the roof requires protection against rain, arched or herringbone shape can be, ramming plastic film and then covered with straw, thickness of 15 cm; mushroom room width 2.8 meters, 20 meters long, The ground and walls are plastered with concrete. Inside the room, a row of mushroom holders are set along both sides of the long wall. The bottom is 50 cm above the ground, the upper is 80 cm from the roof, the bed frame is 6 cm in diameter, and the distance is 1.2 meters. The bed frame is 36 cm apart. (Including cross bar), 1m wide, 0.8m in the middle of the bed frame, symmetry of the long wall, two rows of windows every 2.5m, window size 90cm, 90cm, lower jaw and bed frame The first level is parallel, and the upper window is parallel to the upper bed frame. The roof is equipped with a barrel exhaust outlet, the cylinder is 1 meter above the roof, and the diameter is 30 centimeters. The distance is 5 meters. The landlord and the west exit each open a door. The size of the door is 0.8 meters and 1.5 meters. The door peripherals are 2.8 meters and 3 meters. In a room, install a stove, the flue from the side of the work channel to the mushroom room wall, the diameter of 25 cm, 4 meters high. In addition to the car mushroom house can also be used to transform the general housing, requires ample light, insulation, moisturizing, good ventilation performance, mushroom house structure, brick house, tile house, straw house, plastic shed, underground works, as long as the transformation is reasonable Can cultivate mushrooms.
3. Selection of strains and seasonal arrangement The selective cultivation of mushroom mushrooms is selective. The commonly used strains are 7402, 9002, Shenxiang 4, Shenxiang 2, 856 (Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences), 1310 (Chinese Academy of Sciences), 92.6 (Shandong University). The seasonal cultivation of mushroom is very strong, and the first tidal mushroom can be arranged under the climatic conditions within the optimum temperature range of the mushroom. In addition, the appropriate bacterial age is also very important, when the bacteria age is long, the mycelium does not heal well, and it is easy to contaminate the bacteria; when the bacteria age is short, the hyphae is easy to grow and it is not easy to change colors, but it affects the output, so it is necessary to properly arrange the system. The time of strains is ideal for timely growing of mushrooms. In the Shandong region, the time for seed production is: the mother species in late May, the original species in early June, and the cultivated species in early July to early August. In early October, the first batch of fruiting time will be in early and mid-November, and it will not be delayed until late November.
4. The bacteria producing strains are expanded from the parent species, original species, and cultivated species to three levels for production.
When strains are cultured in high temperature seasons, the room temperature should not exceed 33 degrees Celsius. When the strains are placed, there is a gap between the bags and the bags to increase the ventilation and reduce the temperature of the bags. During the cultivation period, the relative humidity of the air was adjusted to about 70%, and bacteria were detected in a timely manner so as not to directly affect the yield.
5. Production of Cultivation Blocks (1) Briquetting When the mycelium grows over the cultivation bag, continue cultivation for 15 days to break the bag. When doing the block, the bacteria bags with the same age of bacteria are used together to avoid blockage of the age of the bacteria. It should be the early block where the hyphae grow to the bottom of the bag, and the hyphae will grow to the bottom of the bag. .
Before doing the block, wash the tool and bag with 0.1% potassium permanganate solution, remove the tampon, remove the old skin and nodule, and make a block of 30 cm in length, 28 cm in width, and 8 cm in height. - 5cm, each with 5 bags of bacteria, when making the block, the four corners and the surrounding tight point, the middle loose, do not fall edge, do not fall edge, block 3 cm, put a layer of cultivation rack Immediately covered with disinfected plastic film, heat preservation, moisturizing to promote hyphae healing.
(2) Hyphae healing period after doing block control of good room temperature to prevent mold and mycelial growth, promote its timely coloring mushroom is the key, management points: 1 temperature, block and mycelial healing stage, room temperature should be controlled At 22 degrees Celsius, the temperature within the block is appropriate at 23-25 ​​degrees Celsius, and the hyphae of the appropriate temperature will heal quickly and the bacteria will be less contaminated; 2 The humidity, the air relative humidity of the bacteria after the block is controlled by the covered plastic film The relative humidity of indoor air is about 80%. The relative humidity of the air under the film is about 95%. Every day, the film is opened and deflated 1-2 times. When the temperature is lower than 15 degrees Celsius, the air is changed every day or every other day when the temperature is 15-25 degrees Celsius when the daily ventilation 1, when the temperature exceeds 25 degrees Celsius per day 2 times; 3 light, mushrooms to give 10-30lx after the block of light, no light aerial hyphae grow vigorously, hyphae easy to grow The formation of thick fungus, difficult to switch to color mushrooms; 4 ventilation, mushroom mycelium sucking oxygen to discharge carbon dioxide, mushroom room to be ventilated every day for 1-2 hours, so that the air is fresh, mushrooms made of mycelium after trauma, mycelial healing The process needs fresh air.
Under the normal temperature, after the cultivar breaks the bag for 7-10 days, the mycelium will heal to form a thin layer of white bacilli and enter the color management.
(3) The mycelium of the cultivation block is healed during the color change period, and the surface mycelium has matured. Under the effect of appropriate temperature, humidity, light and fresh air, the secretory pigment enters the color-changing period. The mushroom is not a colorless mushroom. . The specific practice of color conversion is: when the mycelium on the surface of the cultivation block is thick and white, there is a layer of mycelium just covered with the surface layer, the film should be tilted in time to increase the wet and dry difference on the surface of the cultivation block, and increase the light to force the hyphae to fall down Secretion of pigments to form a reddish-brown glossy layer of bacilli is ideal.
(4) After budding period, the mycelium has accumulated a large amount of nutrients and gradually entered the mature stage. The mushrooming condition can promote the formation of discoid tissues by twisting the mycelia, and the discoid tissue expands into the mushroom. Buds, the specific methods of management are: reduce the ventilation within the mushroom room, let the surface of the bacteria block moist, the temperature dropped to the original base formation temperature (below 20 degrees Celsius), 3-4 days and then tilt the film, open the doors and windows to increase ventilation, the formation of The difference between dry and wet, while giving light stimulation, the primordium grows from the bottom of the fungus. When most of the buds grow to the size of the broad bean, the cultivating block is turned over, and the thin film is elevated. In the premise of moisturizing, the freshness is increased. The air promotes the development of mushroom buds into mushroom management.
6. Mushrooms Management The shiitake mushroom is first transformed from the bottom of the mushrooms after being turned into color, and then the surface of the surface of the color conversion layer forms primordial membrane rupture. The irregular mycelial layer is exposed and gradually turns brown. It gradually bulges from the bursting position to form mushrooms. bud. From the primordial to mushroom buds, low temperature conditions, suitable moisture, and high relative air humidity are required.
(1) Management of Autumn Mushrooms Autumn Mushrooms occur in October-December, and the climate is relatively dry. To make them mushroom, mushroom houses must be well insulated. Under the condition of ensuring ventilation, the evaporation of water vapor and the relative humidity of the air should be reduced. It is maintained at around 80%. The aerial film covered by the bacteria blocks has an air relative humidity of about 95%. The membrane is exposed to air and fresh air and the difference between dry and wet air is increased every day to extend the lifespan of the cultivation block and increase the yield and quality of the fruit body. After the first batch of mushrooms are harvested, the film is peeled off, the old roots are excavated, the spores and debris on the surface of the bacteria are washed off, and the surface moisture is removed. The film is then cultured for 7-10 days, and the membrane is removed every day for ventilation 1 Secondly, when the mushroom part changes from light yellow to white, it means that the hyphae have re-accumulated nutrients. At this point, the film can be peeled off, and fine mist can be sprayed into the air to make the surface of the cultivating block absorb water and dry and wet. In the state, wipe off the traces of water on the bed of bacteria 2 days later, cover with thin film for 3 days, and then remove the membrane for ventilation. The second batch of mushroom buds are gradually released. When the second batch of mushroom buds was formed, the film was aerialized to obtain high-quality fruit bodies.
(2) Mushroom management Mushroom growth and development period in January-February. At this time the temperature is low, mycelium growth is slow, this stage should be heated up, in the morning should not open the window, when the high temperature at noon window ventilation. Spray water in winter should not be too wet and keep it moist. Generally two or three batches of quality mushrooms can be grown, each batch of mushrooms ranging from 15-20 days.
(3) Mushroom management Spring mushroom production from March to June, when the temperature changes, the temperature is high and low, we must pay attention to changes in temperature, and conduct detailed management, but the law of temperature changes is from low to high. As the mycelium in the mushrooms in the autumn and winter seasons has gradually become old and the vigor has decreased, the requirements for the management of the spring mushroom are meticulous: 1 Keep the air fresh, remove the membranes and change the air several times a day, and the membranes must not be covered tightly. The film is peeled off to rejuvenate the hyphae; 2 the daily indoor ventilation and water spray form a small dry and wet difference; 3 often wash the covered film and scrubbed the water and debris on the bed surface; 4 found the bacteria to clean up in time. The heavily contaminated bacterial mass must be moved out of the mushroom house to reduce the contamination of the mushroom house. After the autumn and winter seasons, the moisture content of most of the bacterial mass drops below 40%, and when the temperature rises to 15 degrees Celsius, the water should be supplied. The method of replenishing water is to immerse the bacteria in water. When the water temperature differs from the block temperature by 5-10 degrees Celsius, it is soaked. - 10 hours, the water content can reach about 60%. After immersing in water, drain the surface moisture and put it back into the cultivation shelf for mushroom management.

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