Frozen rabbit meat is one of the major meat products exported by China. Cryopreservation not only prevents the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, but also promotes physical and chemical changes and improves meat quality. Therefore, frozen rabbit meat has the characteristics of constant color and good quality.
1. Freezing facilities At present, frozen rabbit processing in China mostly uses mechanized or semi-mechanized operations, and its technological level and hygiene standards have reached international standards. The freezing processing room mainly includes a cooling room, a refrigerating room and a freezing room. Medium-sized frozen rabbit meat processing plant Since the slaughter room is generally located on the top floor of the factory building, the meat cooling room should also be located on the top floor to connect with the slaughter room, followed by the freezer and freezing rooms, and the freezing room. It should be located on the ground floor for direct shipment or for temporary storage in other processing rooms. The cooling, refrigerating and freezing rooms should be equipped with monorail cranes. The distance between the tracks is generally 600-800 mm, and the freezer compartment is 3-4 meters high. In order to reduce the degree of contamination of microorganisms on carcasses, air, facilities, ground, walls, and even the staff in the freezer should maintain good sanitation in addition to the care that must be taken during slaughter. In the freezing process, hooks, iron plates, and cloth covers that are in direct contact with the carcass should only be used once. Before repeated use, they must be washed, disinfected, and dried before use.
2. Smelting conditions
Mainly refers to temperature, humidity, air flow rate and cooling time. The freezing of rabbit meat is primarily the freezing of moisture and gravy in muscle fibers, whereas the quality of frozen rabbit meat is closely related to the freezing temperature and speed. According to experiments, under different low temperature conditions, the degree of freezing of rabbit meat is different, usually the fresh rabbit meat moisture, -0.5 ~ -1 Â°C began to freeze, -10 ~ 15 Â°C completely frozen.
According to the measurement, during the entire cooling process, the temperature difference between the cooling medium (air) and the carcass is large in the initial cooling period, the cooling rate is faster, and the water evaporation amount of the carcass surface takes about 1/4 of the time, which accounts for the total evaporation amount. l/2. Therefore, the relative humidity of the air is also required to be divided into two phases. In the first quarter of the cooling time, the relative humidity should be maintained at more than 95%; in the last 3/4 of the cooling period, the relative humidity should be maintained at 90% to 95. %; At the end of cooling, it should be controlled at about 90%. Air flow rate is another important factor affecting the cooling time and degree. Generally, when the rabbit meat is cooled, the air flow rate is preferably 2 meters per second.
3. Cooling method
At present, China's frozen rabbit meat processing plants are using quick-freezing cooling method, the quick-freezing temperature should be below -25 Â°C, relative humidity is 90%. The quick-freezing time is generally not more than 72 hours. When the meat temperature reaches -15Â°C, it can be transferred to cold storage. If there is no small-scale processing plant with cooling facilities, appropriate fans and exhaust fans should be provided. During the hot season, it is necessary to try to keep the meat temperature below 20Â°C, and then send it directly to the quick-freezing room for freezing so that the moisture and flesh in the muscle fibers are completely frozen. Shanghai frozen rabbit meat processing plant in order to speed up the cooling, the use of quick-opening box, so that the original 72 hours quick freezing compressed to 36 hours, not only saving electricity, but also improve the quality of frozen rabbit meat, is an effective measure. The specific practice of the plant is to open the lid and send it to the tube rack for quick freezing. After quick freezing, it is packaged and transferred to cold storage.
Refrigeration is to freeze the rabbit meat, in order to maintain the meat temperature does not rise, need to be stored in a cold store to be shipped. Reasonable refrigerating conditions are that the cold storage temperature should be maintained at -19 ~ -17 Â°C, relative humidity is 90%. The temperature rise and fall in the cold room should generally not exceed 1Â°C. During the process of mass shipments and shipments, the temperature should not rise above 4Â°C overnight, and the air flow should be free flowing and convection. If the temperature goes up and down, it can easily cause dry meat and yellow fat, which affects the quality. The method of refrigerated storage is that long-term frozen rabbit meat should be piled into a square pile, the ground is applied with unventilated wood liners, the liner height is about 30 cm, the stack height is 2.5 to 3 meters, and the cold storage volume and floor load Under the permissible conditions, the larger the volume and density of the piled up, the better. The more the amount of cold storage, the more the utilization of the cold storage can be improved. Between the meat stack and the surrounding walls and ceiling, a distance of 30 to 40 cm shall be maintained, 40 to 50 cm from the cooling pipe, and 15 cm between the meat heap and the meat heap. There should be a channel for transporting the trolley in the middle of the cold storage. Generally not less than 2 meters. The frozen period of frozen rabbit meat mainly depends on the refrigerating temperature and the type of raw materials. Practice has proved that the lower the cold storage temperature, the longer the preservation period. In the cold storage at 4Â°C, the preservation period is only 35 days; at -5Â°C, the preservation period is 42 days; at -12Â°C, the preservation period can reach about 100 days. Exported frozen rabbit meat can be stored for 6 to 12 months if it can be stored at -17Â°C to -19Â°C.
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