Precautions during tilapia wintering

Every fall, when the natural water temperature drops to 18 to 20°C, tilapia will enter the greenhouse for winter. The middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River generally end in late October and early November. The main wintering species are broodstock, reserve broodstock and fingerlings. Tilapia has a high stocking density in winter and is susceptible to death. It must be taken care of in management. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out intensive cultivation before winter, and to feed more nutritious and reasonably proportioned feeds to enhance physical fitness and increase survival rate. .
Tilapia should be brought into the water before entering the greenhouse to prevent Fish from being injured in the bottom of the pool and being caught in the bottom mud. After entering the greenhouse, it will cause watery mildew and red skin disease. Tilapias with severe injuries and poor health were all eliminated so as to avoid pool water pollution and disease transmission after death during winter. In addition to basin disinfection, broodstock and fish species that enter the pool over winter can be soaked in 3% to 4% salt solution for 5 to 10 minutes or soaked in 20 mg/L potassium permanganate solution for 10 minutes to reduce the occurrence of disease. After the tilapia enters the greenhouse, the temperature of the water should be regulated within 20 to 25°C within 8 to 10 days from the beginning to restore the damage caused by fishing and transportation as soon as possible and to enhance the health of the fish. occur. Wintering management of tilapia is extremely important. Based on past experience, the following six points should be noted:
First, water quality wintering pond stocking density is much larger than usual breeding, change the water is not convenient. Due to the long wintering period, tilapia should choose to exchange water or supplement new water during high temperatures during the winter, in order to reduce the winter water pool fatness and keep the water fresh. Note that when changing the water, use well water or non-polluted river water (if the overwintering scale is not large, tap water can also be used), usually a small amount of water change, that is, each time the water volume is controlled at 1/3 or 1/4, the water temperature before and after The difference does not exceed 3°C. If the water quality is poor, a lot of water changes are required, and the water temperature is adjusted as much as possible. In case of prolonged cloudy or rainy weather or inconvenient exchange of water, it is possible to use microbiological agents to divert water, which can also reduce the water quality of the wintering ponds.
Second, the water temperature during the normal wintering of tilapia, the water temperature should be maintained at the lower limit of its growth temperature, so that fish activities, food intake, oxygen consumption are at a relatively low level, can reduce feed input, while reducing fuel expenditures and reduce wintering costs . If the water temperature is too high, the fish's metabolic level, feeding, and activities will increase, and excreta will also increase. This will pollute the water quality. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and other toxic and harmful substances will increase rapidly and cause fish poisoning. Therefore, during the overwintering period, it is advisable to control the water temperature above 18°C.
Third, dissolved oxygen during wintering, due to the wintering pond stocking density, so pay attention to increase the dissolved oxygen in the water to prevent the fish due to lack of oxygen caused flooding pond caused losses. At the same time, in order to keep warm, the greenhouses are sealed as much as possible, so pay attention to ventilation when the weather is fine and renew the air in the greenhouse.
Fourth, feeding during the winter, should pay attention to feeding methods, the number of bait and bait quality. The feed is generally based on extruded materials and floating materials, because the expanded material has good adhesiveness and is not easily lost. It can accurately control the amount of feeding and reduce waste. Some conditions can add some feed, such as soybean cake, silkworm meal, vegetable cake, rice bran, bran, and can also feed some chopped vegetables leaves to supplement certain amounts of trace elements and vitamins. The feed is usually fed once in the morning and in the afternoon. The amount of feed should be within half an hour after the fish is eaten. If the weather changes suddenly or the water temperature is low, the amount of feeding or feeding can be reduced.
V. Disease prevention During the winter, due to the lower water temperature, the bacteria, hydrogen sulfide, and ammonia nitrogen in the water body will increase accordingly, the immunity of the fish itself will decline, and the disease resistance will be weakened. Only by strengthening the feeding and management, and adopting strict preventive measures To reduce the morbidity rate, we must regularly disinfect the body of water and fish so as to “prevent disease, prevent disease and treat diseases early”, and insist on observing the activities of fish every day. When fish movements are found to be sluggish and food intake is reduced, they should be promptly checked. Diagnosis and treatment.
6. During the late winter period, due to the increase in temperature, food intake is increased and the water quality is poor. Therefore, daily management should be strengthened to increase the amount of water exchange, and special attention should be paid to the intensive cultivation of the parental parents so that the constitution can be restored in a relatively short period of time. Accelerate gonad development and advance production. For fish species, in addition to improving the quality and quantity of feed, all preparatory work should be done before going out of the pond.

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