Sesame seeds are grown as high-oil crops. Because sesame causes a large area of â€‹â€‹death or severely reduced production due to disease, coupled with less technical data on sesame, it is prone to errors in the diagnosis and control of diseases. Now sort out the diseases and comprehensive prevention and control measures of several sesame seeds for reference by farmers in production.
Sesame wilt disease is also known as half yellow or yellowing disease. At the seedling stage, the whole plant died of sudden death. After the onset of disease, the first half of the roots became brown, gradually extending to the same half of the stem, making half of the stems and leaves yellow. Half of the diseased stem tube was blocked, the pathogen secreted toxins, the leaves fell off, half of the pods became smaller, and the grains were thin, premature, or withered. The disease from the discovery to death, were half yellow, it is called "half yellow." The disease is a seed and stub strain, spread through the root tip wounds. Even when the sesame seeds and the soil have poor fertility, rain, and high humidity in the field, they are prone to develop this disease.
Sesame stem blight, also known as sesame stem blight, black stalk crazy. Main damage to sesame stems, roots and seedlings. During the seedling stage, the cotyledons became yellow, and the roots were rotted and rotted to death; after sesame blossom, brown spots appeared at the roots. Quickly become a yellow-brown fusiform patch around the stem. The cortex and bast tissue of the root and stem of the diseased plant rot and lose their transduction effect. They cannot absorb water and nutrients. The stem and pith are hollow and easily broken. The disease is prevalent in high temperature, high humidity, and rainy conditions. The partial application of nitrogen fertilizer, planting too dense and continuous cropping damage is aggravated.
Sesame bacterial wilt is also called sesame meal disease. At the beginning of the disease, dark green lesions appear on the stem and gradually darken. The top of the stem of the diseased plant wilted during the day and recovered at night, and soon died. The vascular bundles of roots and stems turn brown, the root brown rots, the stems are empty, and the bacteria grows. The leaves are susceptible and the veins are reticular dark green. The disease was watery and diseased. The bacteria invade from the root wound or invade from the natural hole and spread from the bottom upwards in the plant duct. The disease bacterium spreads over the soil with the diseased plant residues in the soil and is transmitted by running water or agricultural operations. July-August is the peak period of disease. It is conducive to disease epidemics in the event of heavy rain.
The sesame epidemic sesame epidemic is a devastating disease. The main damage to sesame stem base, stem, capsule, leaves. The pathogens use mycelia or oospores to overwinter on the residue of diseased plants, and the pathogens of the following year invade the base of the stems to produce sporangia, which are spread by wind, rain, and water to expand the infection. In July, when sesame buds bloomed, they began to develop. In August, the onset peaked. Severe onset in wet conditions.
Rotation of sesame seedlings should not be used for continuous cropping. It should be carried out for 3-5 years with cotton, soybeans, sweet potato and grass crops to better control the occurrence of diseases.
Seed treatment before sesame seeding, soaking in warm water at 55Â°C for 10 minutes, drying after sowing, or soaking with 0.5% copper sulfate solution for 20 minutes to kill germs carried on seeds.
Every 667 square meters of soil treated with 50% carbendazim 1 kg mixed with appropriate amount of fine dry soil in the soil is scattered in the soil preparation, can reduce the rate of diseased sesame seedlings, effectively control the incidence of seedling stage.
High-ridge cultivating sesame is most afraid of waterlogging. Therefore, it is best to plant sesame with high ridge cultivation to facilitate timely drainage, prevent field water accumulation, reduce field humidity, and reduce the incidence rate.
Strengthen management to strengthen water and fertilizer management, increase base fertilizer, base fertilizer to maturity of organic fertilizer, and with the application of phosphorus, potash fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer should be applied less. Do not apply or less nitrogenous fertilizer at seedling stage to cultivate strong seedlings and enhance the disease resistance of sesame so that the bacteria will not invade. Timely cultivating loose soil, in the middle of weeding and weeding, try to avoid injuring the roots and prevent the invasion of bacteria from the wound.
Remove pathogenic strains in the onset of sesame should promptly remove diseased plants, bring out of the field burned to prevent the spread of germs spread. Immediately after harvest, field residues of diseased plants were removed, burned or buried deeply, and the sources of overwintering bacteria were reduced.
In the early stage of the disease, the use of 50% carbendazim wettable powder 600 times or 70% thiophanate-methyl wettable powder 1000 times can be used for spray control. Spray once every 10 days, even spray 2-3 times, can achieve significant control effect.
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