The current status and thinking of joint breeding of Great White Pigs

The Yorkshire pig (also known as the Great White Pig) has the advantages of rapid weight gain, high reproductive performance, and good meat quality. It is welcomed by the pig producers and plays an important role in the production of lean pigs in China. However, due to lagging in breeding work, the indigenous Yorkshire breeder pigs have not been formed for many years. The original breeder has always depended on imports. Not only does it have to pay a large amount of foreign exchange, but it is also subject to international factors affecting the development of the pig industry and lacks autonomy. Since the establishment of the National Great White Pig Breeding Cooperative Group in 1993, the joint breeding of Great White Pigs began to start. The first step in the organization form has been achieved with international pig breeding. On this basis, after nearly 10 years of hard work, the joint breeding of Large White pigs has gradually matured from the concept of consciousness and breeding technology. The production level of breeding pigs has been improved, the genetic performance has been better played, and the economic benefits have been remarkable. . However, considering the overall level, there are still many areas for improvement and improvement.

1 The necessity of joint breeding of Great White Pigs

China is the world’s largest pig country. The annual slaughter volume is about 500 million heads, and the pork production in 2000 was 40 million tons. Nearly 50% of the world's total pork production. Pig farming is an important industry in China's agriculture. For the development of agricultural economy, the increase of farmers' income and the improvement of the living standards of the urban and rural people all have an important impact.

The contribution rate of breed improvement in developed countries to the development of the pig industry is about 40%. China currently has no exact data in this area. Developed countries such as Europe and the United States have focused on breeding pigs and continuously improving the breeding system of pigs. They have comprehensively applied techniques such as quantitative genetics, statistics, and computer technology to carry out genetic evaluation of breeding pigs, accelerated genetic development, and continuously improved pig production performance and profitability. Improve; In the form of organization, supported by the government, enterprises and scientific research institutions participate in the establishment of a joint breeding organization for pigs, conduct pig breeding performance determination, genetic evaluation and artificial insemination socialization services, cultivate specialized accessory varieties works, and form famous lean meat. Pig brand.

Comprehensive domestic and foreign swine breeding data and production statistics analysis, calculated by annual output of 500 million merchandise pigs in the country, annual stocks of ancestors and over 30 million parental breeder pigs are needed, and 10 million heads are updated each year. The benefits of joint breeding can be achieved. In billions or more. The comprehensive benefits of the joint breeding of Great White Pigs are:

1.1 Raise the level, reduce costs, increase economic efficiency The quality of high-quality breeding pigs with a productivity of more than 1 billion yuan will not only reduce the cost of raising, but also create a higher output value; the price of breeding pigs will be twice that of ordinary pigs or directly increase the price of breeding pig producers. benefit. According to a survey conducted by the Great White Pigs Collaboration Group in 2002, the price difference between Big White pigs of different brands and different performance standards is 1:3 (a 50kg big white pig gilt is sold at 800-3500 in different breeding sites. Between the yuan). Based on the comprehensive benefit analysis, the nationwide slaughter of commercial pigs containing the Great White pig breed will be calculated at 50 million heads (about 10% of the annual slaughter), and the benefits will be increased by more than 20 yuan per head, and the annual profit will reach 1 billion yuan.

1.2 Maximize the use of existing White Pork thoroughbred pig resources, improve the consistency of product quality and specifications, and standardize the level of production, so as to achieve a breakthrough in the quality of pigs and safety of pork, etc., to form a consistent and stable performance of the Great White Pig Breeding Brand. In the competitiveness of the international market, changing the status of the Big White pigs can not be achieved.

1.3 Supporting the Industrialization of Breeding Pigs The joint breeding of Great White Pigs will be carried out nationwide to shorten the gap between this breed and the international advanced level and accelerate the industrialization of breeding pigs.

1.4 Promote environmental protection and sustainable development Under the premise of maintaining certain conditions for the commercial pigs, the excellent breeding performance is high, and the increase in the slaughter rate can reduce the number of breeding pigs; for breeding pigs and raising the commodity pigs, the same benefit can be obtained and 80% of the commodity pigs can be reduced. The reduction in the total feeding volume of commodity pigs can reduce waste emissions and treatment costs. The breeding of healthy varieties that meet the market demand through breeding, the implementation of standardized feeding technical standards, and the production of pollution-free commercial pigs are conducive to environmental protection and sustainable development.

2 Large White Pig Joint Breeding Status

The Ministry of Agriculture organized and organized the National Great White Pig Breeding Cooperative Group in 1993. The team of the cooperative team has been continuously expanded and the current number of members has reached 34; the number of Big White pig sows of each strain is 25,000 in the member farms; the majority of pig farms use the BLUP breeding value estimation method. Genetic evaluation and breeding. Referring to the National Animal Breeding Genetic Evaluation (Trial) and other related documents and technical specifications issued by the National Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Station in the year 2000, the collaboration group drafted and formulated the technical specifications for the joint selection of large White Pigs in China, including the “China Large White Pig Breeding Program” and “ China Big White Performance Measurement Technology Operation Specification and China Large White Pig Joint Breeding Data Management Measures have been basically established. According to the 2002 Annual Meeting of the National Large White Pig Breeding and Cooperation Group, breeding sites of the Great White Pig Breeding were basically selected in accordance with the unified technical specifications.

As China's Great White Pig breeding still uses independent breeding and natural mating as main breeding methods, the effective utilization rate of genetic resources is low, which inhibits the genetic progress of breeding pigs from basically causing various degrees of degradation, which limits the production level of breeding pigs. Form a unified standard product, and lack of competition in the international market.

According to key surveys and estimates, the purebred pigs of the Great White Pig Breeding System in China and the basic sow of the binary crossbreeding account for more than 30% of the population of pigs, and the population is large. However, there is a gap between production performance and other countries such as Europe and the United States. According to the investigation of the performance of breeding pigs in the 18 Great White Breeding Breeding Sites, the main traits are as follows: Annual live-born (head) up to 100kg age (days) 100kg live back-thickness (mm) Carcass lean percentage (%) 2001 Year 11.51 156.1 13 65.6 2002 11.54 155.3 12 65.9

3 Problems in Joint Breeding of Large White Pigs

3.1 Imbalance between provinces and cities According to investigations in 32 provinces and cities across the country, there are nearly 3,000 breeding farms above the county level and nearly 700,000 sow-based sows, while only 34 provinces and municipalities participated in the joint breeding of Great White Pigs. Fields accounted for 50% and 1% of the surveyed provinces and cities respectively. Especially in some pig-producing provinces and large grain-producing provinces, they have not yet participated in the joint breeding of large white pigs, causing waste of resources.

3.2 Unbalanced breeding sites within the Great White Pig Breeding Cooperative Group are technically unbalanced in selection and application, resulting in a combination of conventional conventional breeding, application of equipment and computer software for breeding, molecular breeding techniques, and quantitative genetic statistics. 3 steps.

3.3 The difference in performance measurement data is larger. Take 100kg memorized piggyback as an example. According to a survey of 21 Great White Pig Cooperatives, the average number of backs is between 10-14mm (including 10mm), 3 fields below 10mm, 8mm at the lowest, and 1 field above 14mm ( 17mm). The primary reasons for the differences were differences in strains and differences in the environment (breeding conditions). (Back-to-back measurement instruments currently used by members of the collaborative group were mainly A- and B-ultrasonics, but the sources and types of products were varied. ) Differences in the operation of different measurement personnel, errors in data recording and computer input, etc.

3.4 The data processing software is not unified. At present, 90% of the members of the Great White Pig Collaborative Group apply the GBS (or GPS) breeding software, and 10% of them use their breeding software, which is not conducive to data centralized and centralized processing.

4 Doing a good job of joint breeding of Great White Pigs

4.1 Establishing the Great White Pig Breeding Database The Great White Pig Genetic Evaluation Center set up by the Great White Pig Cooperative Leader Unit (Beijing Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Station, Beijing Germplasm Genetic Evaluation Center) is preparing a special website for breeding pig genetic evaluation, configuring a database server, and creating a collaborative group login ID. Or user ID, establish the White Pig joint breeding central information release system and user-specific data channels. After the completion of the website, it can realize the great achievements of data technology and network technology. With the aid of the Internet, the joint selection of the Great White Pigs will be organized on the joint track of substantive alliances.

4.2 Uniform technical specifications, unified determination equipment and breeding software The introduction of a unified White Breeding Breeding Technical Specification, referred to as “Breeding Scheme”, “Determination Procedures”, and “Data Management Methods”, is modified and improved to make it easy to learn and operate. Strong. For the screening of the measurement equipment, it is recommended that the White Pig Breeding Farm shall use the B-ultrasonic, electronic weighing, automatic counting system and other measuring equipment. In the absence of new software development, it is recommended to uniformly apply GBS or GPS breeding software, and optimize and upgrade existing software to enhance its automatic error correction capabilities, automatic conversion and automatic recovery functions to meet the existing breeding data processing and Need for analysis.

4.3 Uniformly carry out technical training To establish a high-level breeding technical team based on unification of technical specifications, unified equipment, and unified software. The collaborative team will carry out systematic training on related technologies to make it a centralized measurement and data processing. Network transmission is a high-standard compound technical talent. In order to ensure the relative stability of the breeding technology talents, it is recommended to establish a special breeding information personnel system, and special breeding information personnel are dually guided by the collaboration group and the breeding site in the business.

4.4 Enhancing Genetic Linkages Among Collaborative Groups Currently, there are few genetic linkages between members of a collaborative group. With the continuous deepening of the joint breeding work, especially with the operating platform of the upcoming breeding genetic analysis website, the first to achieve data concentration, and then use artificial insemination to achieve excellent sharing of boar resources and other means, the strengthening of genetic links is just around the corner.

4.5 Management of the Collaboration Group The Dabai Pig Breeding Collaboration Group is a non-governmental organization. It combines research and development of organization management, operation management, technology management, and technology. It has the dual identity of organizers and implementers. In order to ensure the smooth and successful development of the joint breeding of Great White Pigs, modern management concepts need to be applied so that the cooperative team can operate well without changing the nature and build a self-financing professional breeding organization, especially to ensure the completion of the genetic evaluation website. And the database works well.

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