Nutritional Characteristics and Fertilization Techniques of Winter Wheat

Nutritional characteristics

The growth and development of wheat requires various elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, copper, zinc, manganese and boron. Each 100 kg of wheat grain needs 2.8 kg of pure nitrogen, 1 kg of phosphorus pentoxide, and 2.4 kg of potassium oxide. The amount of fertilizer needed increases with the level of production. Due to the different utilization rate of different fertilizers in the season, generally, 12 to 15 kg of pure nitrogen and 4 to 8 kg of phosphorus pentoxide are required for the whole growing period of each mu of wheat. In addition to middle and low yield fields, potassium fertilizer (potassium oxide) is also required. ~ 6 kg. The nutrient uptake rate varies with the growth period of wheat. The absorption of nitrogen has two peaks. The nitrogen uptake from tillering to winter accounts for 13.5% of the total absorption. The nitrogen uptake from jointing to the booting stage accounts for 37.3% of the total absorption. The absorption of phosphorus and potassium in wheat increases with the growth. Increased absorption rate after jointing surged, and phosphorus and potassium, which account for more than 40% of total absorption, were absorbed after the booting. Zinc, boron, manganese and other elements are targeted for use due to lack of supply and demand according to soil nutrient supply. In terms of staged fertilization, according to the characteristics of wheat requiring fertilizer, follow the principle of “reusing basic fertilizer, skillfully applying topdressing fertilizer, and supplementing application of trace element fertilizer” and rationally adjust the method.

Fertilization technology

The application of basal fertilizer is “rich in wheat and hi-bench, and the base fertilizer is the basis”. For the wheat field where the texture of the soil is sticky, and the fertility is strong, and there is no irrigation condition, all the fertilizer can be applied as a basal fertilizer once, which is commonly called “a shelling”. The specific method is to apply full amount of organic fertilizer, 2/3 nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers (or directly use humic acid long-term slow-release controlled-release compound fertilizers) to the surface, deep plowing immediately, and spread the remaining fertilizer after ploughing. On the gimmicks, they will break into the soil immediately. For sandy soil or irrigated land with poor fertilizer retention performance, sub-fertilizers can be used for re-using basal fertilizer and applying top-dressing. That is, 2/3 of the nitrogen fertilizer and all of the phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and organic fertilizers (or long-term slow-release controlled-release compound fertilizers containing humic acid) are used as base fertilizers, and the remaining nitrogen fertilizers are used as top dressings.

Fertilizer can be used as base fertilizer, but also can be used for seed dressing. When used as a basal fertilizer, it is difficult to spread evenly because of the small amount of the basal fertilizer. After mixing it with the fine soil, the ground surface is spread and the soil is ploughed. When dressing with zinc and manganese fertilizers, 2 to 6 g of zinc sulfate and 0.5 to 1 g of manganese sulfate are used per kilogram of seed, which is sown immediately after seed dressing.

Top-dressing top-dressing top dressing is an important measure to obtain high yield in wheat. For medium-high yield wheat fields with adequate sowing and adequate basal application, it is generally not necessary to top-dress or less top-dressing. Inferior application of basal fertilizer and late sowing, the three types of seedlings and wheat fields where the individual's growth potential is poor and the tiller is small need to be top-dressed, and the top dressing amount is the difference between the amount of base fertilizer to be applied and the already applied base fertilizer; the weak seedlings will grasp the top dressing amount according to the seedling condition.

Spring topdressing is the key to high yield of wheat, including topdressing during the green period, top dressing during jointing stage, and panicle fertilizer. It is mainly used twice before application and supplemented by panicle fertilizer. The topdressing amount accounts for 30% to 40% of the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer. Insufficient application of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should be applied early when wheat returns green. Jointing stage is the maximum efficiency period of winter wheat fertilization, which can promote the differentiation of florets and the formation of big pods, and strive for more large grains. The jointing fertilizer was applied at the late peak of wheat tillering. Dosage and time should pay attention to seedlings, over-prosperity wheat fields, can not top-dressing, to prevent late lodging; Wheat seedlings strong, moderate delivery of wheat can be followed by a small amount of nitrogen fertilizer, and appropriate delay in fertilizer application time, wheat seedlings thin, yellow-green leaves, childbirth Insufficient wheat fields should be properly increased nitrogen fertilizer use. Nitrogen fertilization at the jointing stage of wheat accounted for about 30% of the total fertilization.

In regions where soil trace elements are lacking, root-spraying fertilizers can be used. Spraying fertilizers outside the roots is an effective fertilization method for supplementing the nutritional deficiencies of wheat in the later period. Due to the inconvenience of topdressing in the late wheat field, and the absorption capacity of the root system is decreasing with the advancement of the growing period, if the fertilization material must be traced later in the fertility period, the foliar spraying method may be adopted, which is also an emergency measure for wheat production increase. .

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