Chestnut "empty", prevention and control

Chestnut "empty cricket" is also called "empty awning," and the empty rate can reach 30% to 90%, affecting chestnut yield. The main reasons for chestnut emptying are: 1 chestnut pollination poor fertilization. 2 The lack of boron in the soil and the lack of available phosphorus. 3 other factors. One is the variety, different varieties, different numbers of male and female inflorescences, different nutrient consumption, and different canopy rates. The second is moisture. In the year of drought, pouring enough water or enough rainwater during the flowering period of the chestnut, the filling stage and the freezing stage of the chestnut tree can not only make the chestnut tree grow vigorously, but also significantly reduce the canopy rate. Third, light, poor lighting, soil moisture, nutrients and oxygen supply in short supply, chestnut trees can not be normal photosynthesis led chestnut shoots short, yellow leaves, the result is poor, the rate of open air is greatly improved. The fourth is the wind. In the flowering period of chestnut, if the wind speed is too large, the emptying rate of the chestnut will increase. If the wind speed is too small, even the windless, the emptying rate of the chestnut will increase. The optimum wind power for chestnut flowering is generally 3 to 4 grades, and there is a big difference between open areas and non-open areas.
Prevention and treatment of empty chestnut: 1 Select high-quality chestnut varieties with high seed-setting rate and low canopy rate, such as Jiaozha, Qingzha, Chushuhong, Dahongpao, nine species, and Maobanhong. 2 Develop the best tree structure. The sapling season should be planted in a moderately densely planted form at the initial stage of the experiment, and the natural spindle shape should be used to increase the early yield and economic income. In the early stage of fruiting, appropriate thinning and reasonable pruning should be conducted to cultivate the main trunk into a tree, which can be more effective Use space to increase the wind and light conditions of the tree, thereby reducing the canopy rate and increasing production. 3 Reasonably configure the pollination tree. Chestnut self-pollination has low seed setting rate. Pollination with multiple pollen mixtures can significantly reduce the canopy rate. It is generally believed that the allocation quantity of pollination tree should be 1/3 of the main cultivar tree. 4 Optimum sparse and sparse canopy to reduce tree nutrient consumption. When the male inflorescence grows to 1 to 2 cm, it is removed, leaving only 2 to 3 under the mixed inflorescence, so that the male to female ratio is maintained at 1 : 129 or more. 5 Artificially assisted pollination. At present, there is a single chestnut plant that can be used as a pollination tree. In addition, the selection of strong varieties, the collection of pollen, artificial auxiliary pollination, can increase 20% to 40% seed setting rate. 6 Strengthen the management of fertilizer and water, and maintain the robust growth of the tree. Appropriate topdressing, irrigation, especially in the chestnut flower base period, pollination period should pay attention to fertilization. For adult trees, apply 2-3 kg of urea or 2 kg of nitrogen-phosphorus compound fertilizer and apply water after application. For the mountainous areas without irrigation conditions, under the canopy of the rainy season, a disk is used, and the method of shallow flooding is used to store rainwater. Green manure can be applied within the pot to increase soil fertility. The top-dressing fertilizer is dominated by nitrogen, and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium should be combined in the later period. 7 Leaf spray boron, phosphorus and other nutrient solutions. Spraying 2 to 3 times 0.15% to 0.25% boron fertilizer during flowering can reduce the canopy rate from 23% to 32%. Among them, mixed application with urea and monopotassium dihydrogen phosphate is best at flowering stage. The critical period for the most effective control of chestnut awnings is two periods of ovule formation (late May) and double fertilization (late June). During the period of differentiation of female flower of chestnut, if the solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate or superphosphate 0.3%~0.5%+urea 0.3% is sprayed 1 or 2 times, it can be combined with spraying boron, spraying phosphorus, and spraying urea during flowering period. Preventing chestnuts and emptying the canopy can also increase the increase of female flowers in chestnuts.

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