Grape quality and high yield supporting management technology

First, the establishment of a high-quality orchard First, we must choose a good variety, mainly considering its maturity, market adaptability and comprehensive quality (the integrity of the ear, the fruit is huge, the fruit color, the fruit's sugar content and sugar acid ratio, etc.). The second is to choose fertile deep sand loam or loose loam, PH value of 6.5-7.5, irrigation and drainage well. The third is to open the ditch before planting base fertilizer, generally digging width 80 cm, 1 meter deep ditch, apply about 5,000 kilograms per acre of organic fertilizer, backfill irrigation after water seepage, after 4-5 days according to the established line spacing digging planting, planting After watering. Second, to strengthen fertilizer and water management After planting, pay attention to fertilizer and water management. The general result period is 5,000 kg per mu (basic miscellaneous fertilizer) per acre per year. Immediately after harvest, 500 kg of calcium sulfate are added. Annual top dressing 3-4 times, generally topdressing urea or diammonium 20 kg/mu before budding, applying 20 kg/mu nitrogen fertilizer after fruit setting, 20 kg/mu potassium fertilizer during fruit expansion, and applying three-element compound fertilizer after harvesting for 20 days 20 kg/mu. Each time the top dressing is combined with watering, watering must be controlled 20 days before picking. In arid areas, it is necessary to pay attention to pouring frozen water and germinating water. Another can be appropriate multiple times outside the top dressing, beginning in late August, spray every day with spray 0.3-0.5% urea, potassium dihydrogen phosphate or trace elements, in order to promote fruit and shoots mature; Ethylene and other plant growth regulators to affect fruit quality. Third, the implementation of standardized plastic pruning is to wipe out buds early, timely timing. After germination of the grapes in early spring, the perennial branches and stems are wiped off with weak buds, and the shoots are removed when the shoots grow to 15-20 cm. Straw trimming, the distance between the new shoots to maintain 10-15 cm is more appropriate. On average, about 2.5 new shoots are left on each result mother tree. The second is to pick up the heart in time and deal with secondary shoots. Generally 4-5 days before flowering, leaves 5-6 leaves above the result branch, and 10-12 leaves leave nutrient branches; the treatment of the auxiliary tip only retains the top tip and leaves 2-3 leaves Take heart. It is also possible to adopt all the sub-tips below the inflorescence and erase them, while leaving the remaining sub-tips to leave one leaf repeatedly topping. The third is the trimming method of the resulting mother branch. In order to obtain better quality masterbatch, the pruning method combining the two-branch update and single-branch update is generally adopted in production. In addition to the length of the cuts, the length of the cuts is, in principle, the result of stoutness and fullness, and the length of the thin branches is kept short. In addition, we need to be flexible in terms of shelf type, fertilizer and water conditions, soil quality, tree age, tree vigor, dendrite type, and current year production. In the soil where the soil is rich, the fertilizer is sufficient, and the growth is prosperous, the pruning of the medium and long shoots may be appropriate. In the poorly soiled and fertile fields, the pruning of mid-short shoots is preferred. For the extension of the tree-shaped extension of the branch, the use of long tips or extremely long tips pruning; used to enrich and expand the results of the branches of the vine, the use of the tip or long tip pruning; to stabilize the results of the site, to prevent its relocation, can be used short Tips or short tips are trimmed; for some fine, dense, diseased shoots, and immature shoots should be removed as soon as possible. Fourth, pay attention to flower and fruit management First, trim inflorescence. According to the vigor and weakness of the tree vigor and the resulting branches, the excessive inflorescences are eliminated and the leaf-fruit ratio is improved. Generally, two branches can remain in the thick and strong branches, and one in the mean tree branches. The thin and weak branches dred off the ear and turn into vegetative branches; the inflorescences are trimmed about one week before flowering, and the top of the inflorescence is shed to its full-length 1/5-1/4. about. The second is to sort the ears. Before the rapid enlargement of the fruit, the small, dense, deformed, diseased fruit will be removed. Under normal circumstances, large fruit varieties can stay 40-50 per panicle, medium fruit varieties can stay 50-60, small fruit varieties can leave 60-70 per panicle. For excessively long ears, remove the tip of the tip so that the ears are neat and consistent, and the secondary fruit inflorescences or ears should be removed as soon as possible. The third is a reasonable load. For large ears, too spikelets, sparse spikes, spikes generally do not exceed 1000 grams per ear, per acre to maintain 2000-2500 kg is appropriate. The fourth is fruit bagging. The fruit is generally bagged after the physiological fruit drop and the size of the fruit bean, and the whole garden is sprayed with a bactericide and pesticide before the bagging, and the fruit bagging is dried after the liquid is dried, from 8 a.m. to 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Better after time. V. Integrated prevention and control of pests and diseases In accordance with the occurrence and development laws of grape pests and diseases, based on the comprehensive prevention and control of agriculture, due to the time, place, and flexible use of chemical, biological, physical and other measures, it is economical, safe and effective. To control pests and diseases to achieve high yield, stable production, and high quality. Grape diseases mainly include boxworm, blackpox and anthrax, and insect pests include spider mites and aphids. Based on the "prevention-based, comprehensive prevention and control," it is necessary to promptly spray and control medicine, especially during the rainy season. Spraying 5 degrees lime sulfur in early spring and spraying half a half amount of Bordeaux mixture in the early stage are the key to controlling black pox and gray mold. After 10 to 15 days of fruit setting, according to the incidence, use Bordeaux mixture or tetromycin or thiram to alternate spraying to prevent various diseases. In the later period, attention should be paid to the prevention and control of downy mildew. Spraying 40% BFA agent 200-300 times or 25% metalaxyl 600 times can be applied. If the disease is heavy, it can be sprayed once every 5-7 days. Sixth, scientific harvesting and storage According to different stages of maturity, picking in batches, should not be adopted in advance, otherwise not only poor sugar quality, but also not resistant to storage. Post-harvest and fashion boxes, kept at low temperatures. Harvested in mid-to-late September, disinfection and preservative storage within 24 hours, storage temperature is maintained at 0-1.5 °C, can be stored until the second year of March-April.

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