Protected strawberry cultivation techniques

Strawberry is a berry plant commonly cultivated in countries all over the world. It is rich in nutrients, succulent, sweet and sour. It breeds easily and benefits quickly. It can take certain measures and it can be the result of planting the year. Strawberries are like cucumbers, tomatoes, and other vegetables. Different varieties of ripe strawberries, properly planted, or cultivated with different protective measures, can make strawberry fruit mature at different times, extend the supply time of fresh fruit, and can also increase the yield of strawberries, and generally increase yield. The rate is above 30%, and the maximum increase rate is more than doubled. Not only that, the adoption of protected cultivation of strawberries will make more economical use of land and increase the productivity of land, which has considerable economic and social benefits. I. Arrangement of the different varieties of strawberry fruit ripening time is different, the arrangement of sun-burning greenhouse strawberry production is not the same. Planted one-season varieties, and simmering was arranged on top of the sorghum and strawberry squash. Vegetables, fruits, tomatoes, cucumbers, and beans were good. Dandong usually planted strawberries from late September to early October, and planted tomatoes on strawberry in mid-February. In mid-March, the strawberry began to ripen. In mid-April, the strawberry harvest was completed. In late May, the tomatoes began to be marketed. At the end of July, the land was relaxed for 1-2 months. After artificial fertility, the production cycle was continued in the following year. Planting multi-season mature strawberry varieties, generally one production cycle per year, spanning two years, planting Spanish strawberry Dokla varieties, planting in the end of September to early October, maturing in early February, ending in late June, land recreation 2-3 Month, artificial fertility, and then the next year production cycle. Second, species selection 1, celebrity species: the United States varieties, more vigorous plant growth, opening, weak branching force, large leaves. The average fruit weight of the first level is 23 grams. As a season variety, strong resistance to disease, strong resistance, high yield, generally 1500-2000 kg per mu. 2, Hani: American varieties, plants grow robust, moderate branches, large leaves. The average fruit weight of the first-stage order was 25.2 grams. The flesh is slightly hard and of fine texture and suitable for transport and processing. The variety is resistant to diseases and has high yield performance. Generally, the yield per mu is about 2000 kg. 3, Gorella: Netherlands varieties, plants upright, compact, medium branches, oval leaves. The first order fruit average fruit weight 24 grams. Fruit red, hard, hollow heart. Plants resistant to cold and disease. For a season variety, high yield, generally 2000 kilograms per mu. 4, Baozao Zaosheng: Japanese varieties, plants grow open, medium branches. The average fruit weight of the first-stage ordinal fruit was 17.2 g. The skin was thin and impatience was stored and transported. The flavor was sweet and the quality was excellent. The dormancy period is short, suitable for open field and protected cultivation, generally 1000-1500 kg per mu. 5, Chunxiang: Japanese varieties, plants upright, medium branching force, large leaves, the average fruit weight of the first-stage order fruit 17.8 grams, red juice, sweet taste, good quality. For a season, the dormancy period is short, suitable for protection cultivation, generally 1500 kilograms per mu. 6, Changhong: China's varieties, plant growth medium, open state. The first order fruit average fruit weight 18 grams. The variety is resistant to cold and disease, more productive, and each fruit matures more concentrated. It is suitable for the production of four seasons of the ideal varieties, generally 1500-1800 kg per mu. 7. TODLA: Spanish cultivars, plants upright, medium fertility, average first-order fruit weight 33 grams. The plant has strong resistance, disease resistance and high yield. It is currently the shortest species in the dormant period of strawberry cultivars. The cultivar is the earliest mature in protected cultivation and can be harvested in January under normal circumstances. For multi-season varieties, greenhouse cultivation can produce 4-5 inflorescences one after another, forming multiple fruit productions, continuing the results for 2-3 months, and the conditions can be suitable for 4 months, generally 3,000 kg per mu, and the maximum mu yield is 5,000 kg. 8, Carter 1: Spanish varieties, plants opened, large plants. Strong growth potential, weak reproduction. The first order fruit average fruit weight 30 grams. It is delicate in taste, rich in fragrant flavor, sweet and sour palatability and excellent in quality. Plants have strong resistance, dormancy period is longer, suitable for open field and cold shed cultivation, generally 2500-3000 kg per mu. Third, seedling cultivation In strawberry production, the main selection of seedlings and seedlings of the seedlings to form a new method of separation of strawberry seedlings, seedling cultivation. The management of the mother plant should be centered around nutrient-saving to promote pumping stolons and cultivate robust seedlings. To the mother plant inflorescence, after the mother plant has survived, the inflorescence has to be removed in time, accumulate nutrients, and increase the reproduction rate of the seedlings. When the mother plant picks the stem, it is necessary to press the stem in time and guide the pumped stem to the bed where there is a growth position. When the stem is used to draw young leaves, the front end is pressed to the ground with a small amount of fine earth and exposed. Point to promote hair rooting. After entering the month of August, when the Portuguese stalk seedlings are planted on the bed surface, it is necessary to take care of the excess pods in time to control the amount of growth. Generally, each mother strain retains 5-6 Portuguese larvae, and the excess pods are removed before reaching the ground. Strong seedlings can be cultivated from September to October. Fourth, planting 1, site preparation: planting a week before planting, per acre Shi quality farmyard fertilizer about 4000-5000 kg, deep-turn 30 cm, leveling, rake fine, according to cultivation plotting ridge bed, the general bed height 10-15 cm The bed width of the ridge bed is 60-70 centimeters wide, and the spacing between the ridge beds is 20-30 centimeters. The ridge bed direction is consistent with that of the greenhouse. 2. Time for planting: The time for planting strawberries in sunlight greenhouses is determined by the seedlings and the local temperature conditions. Generally, seedlings can be planted before the flower buds differentiate to form flower buds or after the formation of flower teeth. However, before the low temperature comes, the newly planted strawberry must be able to resume normal development. The Dandong region is best planted in mid-September, and can also be planted before the flower buds of strawberry in the middle to late July. 3, planting density: to take a wide, narrow line (or double line) planting, usually in the well-developed bed double row distance of 35-45 cm, 25-30 cm hole distance, acres planted 4000 points -4500 points, each Cave planting 2-3 strains. If the individual plants are planted, the plant spacing is 13-17 cm, and 8000-10000 plants per mu are used. 4. Planting methods: Firstly, the mulching bed is pressed on the mulching film, and then the mulching film is drilled on the ridge bed according to the planting density. The seedlings are planted and the seedlings are to be directed outwards, so that the inflorescence lives in the bed. Both sides. Then stretch the roots of the seedlings, cultivate the soil, and plant the seedlings. The base of the new stems of the seedlings should be flush with the bed surface. It is also possible to plant plants directly on the bed with no membranes. V. Management after planting 1. Soil management The main management content of strawberries after planting is soil moisture. Due to high indoor air temperature, large transpiration coefficient of soil moisture, and large air temperature, the irrigation time is generally performed in the evening. The irrigation in the greenhouse must be filled with water at a time. Do not water or spray water in order to regulate the excessive air temperature. After weaving strawberries, weeds can be removed in time. 2. Plant Management After the planting of strawberries, plant management mainly includes three aspects: First, in addition to the stems of the Portuguese. The tapped stems of the taproots that were planted were removed in a timely manner so that they could be seen and removed, and concentrated to be destroyed outdoors. The second is in addition to dead leaves and weak shoots. After the survival of the leaves of the strawberry, the leaves are constantly aging, the photosynthesis is weakened, and diseased leaves are produced. Therefore, the yellow leaves, diseased leaves, and the weakly growing lateral buds on the plants are continuously removed during the growing season to save nutrition and concentrate nutrition to provide results. The third is to eliminate buds. Remove excess buds before flowering. The varieties of large fruits retain order 1 and 2 flower buds; the middle and small fruit varieties retain 1, 2 and 3 order flower buds. 3. Temperature control Sunlight greenhouses increase room temperature by covering plastics. Due to different climatic conditions, the time for coating is not the same. In mid-November in Dandong, it is advisable to buckle the membrane before freezing. The greenhouse temperature rises rapidly after coating, and the initial maximum temperature should not exceed 25°C. When the temperature is high, the ventilation openings should be cooled. It is advisable to lower the temperature at night and keep the minimum temperature at 5°C or above. When cooling is continued, thermal insulation measures such as covering sheets or straws on plastic film should be adopted. In a special year, a low-temperature climatic condition can be established on the back wall of a greenhouse to warm the furnace. After the strawberry grows, the temperature control index in the greenhouse is: night temperature is above 2°C, daytime temperature is below 30°C, nighttime temperature is above 7°C during flowering, and daytime temperature is between 20-26°C. 4. Flowering-assisted pollination Although the strawberry self-pollination is robust, due to the large air temperature, large temperature variation, small ventilation, and less insects in the solar greenhouse, it is unfavorable for strawberry pollination and fertilization. Without auxiliary pollination, the fruits were small and the malformed fruits increased. The fruit size of the auxiliary pollination increased, the fruit shape was neat, and the yield increased significantly. There are two methods for strawberry-assisted pollination in the greenhouse: First, insects are pollinated by insects in the greenhouse, which saves labor and pollination. Generally two boxes per bee of greenhouse can be placed. The second is to give an artificial point and use the brush or cigarette paper to teach. Harvesting, packaging, transportation, and harvesting: When the fruit color changes to red about 30 days after flowering, the berries ripen. When picking, the handles are forcibly removed, picking once every 1-2 days, and every harvest The ripe fruit should be harvested. When harvesting, it should be lightly lifted to remove the malformed fruit at any time. The disease, insects grading packaging. Packing: Choose a plastic (cardboard or veneer) box 50-70 cm long, 30-40 cm wide, and 15-20 cm high. Embed soft paper or plastic foam into the box and put the fruit gently into the box. The direction aligns so that the upper handle is in the fruit of the lower layer. Large fruit put 3-5 layers; small fruit put 5-7 layers, quantitative cover, tied labels, indicate the origin, variety, grade and quantity. Transportation: Use a refrigerated truck or a shedded truck to pad the grass curtains on the carriages, tighten the container, discharge a layer, and then cover the paper and then horizontally discharge the second layer. Pack it up to 3-5 layers. The uppermost container Stamped tip guards, closed car. Storage: Temporary storage of storage should be ventilated, cool, and tidy. It can be stored for 2-3 days at 3-4°C. Quick frozen and chilled, select the fruits with neat and straight shape. Last year, sepals were washed with clean water, then put into 2% potassium permanganate solution and then rinsed with water. After draining, plastic boxes (bags) were filled. Each box was packed. 5-10 kg, into the quick-freezing room in the frozen room at 25 °C -30 °C frozen 5-7 hours, and then placed in cold storage at -18 °C.

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