Soybean breeding

Soybeans are self-pollination crops, which often result in deterioration of the species because of mechanical intermixing, adverse climatic conditions and cultivation conditions, and natural hybridization. Therefore, self-seeding seeds cannot be used for a long time. Seeds should be changed every three years. Therefore, we must persist in purifying rejuvenation, do a good job of breeding, and maintain the seed quality of good varieties. 1. Methods for purification and rejuvenation of soybean varieties (1) Selection of soybeans The common method for selecting and rejuvenating soybeans consists of the selection of individual plants, the identification of strains, and the combination of high-rate multiplication. Separate plant nursery, plant nursery, and mixed plant nursery. Single plant selection nursery: Select the typical excellent single plant for the test, single plant threshing. Eliminate single plants that are inconsistent with the characteristics of grain color, grain shape, and umbilical color of the original variety. Line identification nursery: One line per line (strain). Elimination of strains that are inconsistent with the original variety. The planting design can use a control line (original variety) every 10-20 lines. Selected strains for breeding in the next year. Hybrid Propagation Nursery: The above-mentioned identification of the strains and the mixed harvested seeds are planted at equal distances and then planted at high magnification. The seeds produced by the above 3 nurseries are referred to as super purified rejuvenation stocks. (2) Mixed Seed Selection When the soybeans are mature, select a certain number of robust and good individuals with the typicality of the species, and then conduct a rigorous indoor multiple selection and then mix and thresh and store them separately to use as breeding seed for the next year. The breeding field adopts advanced cultivation and management measures and strictly eliminates impurities. (3) A single plant with the typical traits of the original cultivar is selected and the progeny of the cultivar are finely bred and propagated. This method expands the breeding of single-line harvested seeds, which is slightly longer than the strain selection method. 2. To establish a soybean super seed obtained through purification and rejuvenation in the seed field. Since the amount of seeds is small, it is necessary to establish a seed field and produce a large number of breeding seeds. The size of the seed field is determined by the number of seeds sown and the yield per mu field. The area of ​​a typical seed field can be 4%-5% of the area of ​​a production field or a seed field at a higher level. For the selection of seed plots, the plots with flat terrain, well-drained water, uniform soil, and no weight or land should be used. Fertilizers were added to the farmyard and fertilizers were applied according to the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus. Strengthen field management, and time seedlings, timely cultivating weeds, soil cultivation, soil weeding without weeds. During the period of flowering and graining, top dressing is applied 1-2 times, timely irrigation is performed during drought, and pests and diseases are prevented and treated in time. During the entire period of growth, according to the morphological traits, seedling, flowering, and mature period, strict elimination of impurities. After maturity, timely harvesting, strict grasp of harvest, threshing, etc. can easily lead to several aspects of mechanical mixing.

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