Recovery, Storage and Transportation of Ginkgo Biloba Leaves

First, harvest. Ginkgo biloba is mainly used for manufacturing medicines, tea, health products, cosmetics, beverages, etc. The key to harvesting is to determine the harvesting period, harvesting methods, and harvest volume. 1, harvest time. Early harvest, premature leaf development is not perfect, the drug composition is not up to standard, and it affects the vegetative growth of the tree; too late, the active ingredients in the leaf drop, and the utilization rate is low; According to the determination, the fresh weight of Ginkgo biloba increased most rapidly in May, accounting for About 95% of the year, the maximum value of dry weight increases from mid-late September to early October, accounting for about 96% of the whole year. In summer, when the light intensity is the highest, the content of terpenoids is the highest, and France and Germany currently request Shandong. Dry leaves are provided every year from July to September, and they are collected in stages, batches, and layers. That is, in July, the lower layer of seedlings was collected, and in mid-August, upper layers were collected from late September to early October. 2, harvest method. Ginkgo harvesting methods are divided into three types: artificial, mechanical and chemical harvesting. Manual mining. Suitable for ginkgo trees during the result period. Collecting leaves in batches as much as possible does not affect the results of the leap year and was harvested before the beginning of October. Use bamboo rafts to hit the leaves and protect the short branches. For saplings, they can be taken leaf-by-leaf or cluster-leaves in the direction of the extension of the branches, and the short branches and buds must not be damaged. Mechanical harvesting. Suitable for large-scale leaf collection parks. Can use reciprocating cutting, spiral rolling and horizontal rotary hook cutting type blade cutting machine for operation. In order to avoid the impact on the tree body, generally after 3-4 years of mechanical mining, combined with 1 manual harvesting or flattening, in order to restore the tree vigor. Chemical picking leaves. To improve efficiency, conditions can be used. On the 10-20 days before leaf collection, 0.1% ethephon was sprayed. 3, the amount of leaf. In general, 1-year-old seedlings can be harvested from 150-200 kilograms of fresh leaves per acre; 2-year-old seedlings can be harvested from fresh leaves of 750-850 kilograms per acre; 4-5-year-old seedlings can be produced, and fresh leaves up to 1,500 acres per acre. - 2000 kg. Second, the storage and drying of leaves. 1, fresh leaf storage and transportation. Post-harvest forbidden exposure, temporarily stored in the shade, 10-20 cm thick, diligent. Before loading into a clean, sterile, ventilated container, it should not be squeezed too tightly, preferably 40-50 kg per bag. After reaching the destination, stand or dry. 2, leaves dry. After the leaves are harvested, they must be dried immediately, and the debris must be removed before treatment. Drying methods include artificial natural drying and mechanical drying. Natural drying is to expose the leaves to the sun. The thickness is generally 10-15 cm. It is turned at least five times a day and covered with plastic film at night. Generally, it can be stored and transported for 2-4 days. In order to prevent "resurgence", and then dry it again every 15 days, mechanical drying refers to the use of dry dryers for rapid processing. In China, cereals or pasture dryers or dewatering machines can be used for hot air drying. This method has high efficiency and good results. But the cost is also high. The process flow is: fresh leaves → de-absorbed → hot-air drying (80-100°C) suction filtration → picking out impurities → quality inspection (leaf moisture content <12%) → compression volume → bale packaging transport (180 kg per bundle ). 3, packaging, transportation and storage. The dried standard leaves should be packed and transported as soon as possible. If the amount of leaves can be squeezed into a sack or nylon bag, 25-40 kg per bag is appropriate. If a large number of production or export, can use dry compressors to compress and bind dry leaves, into a block, each 50 kg, tightly packed, integrated transport. Packed leaves should be stored in a ventilated, low-temperature, dry room. Such as cold storage requirements: temperature 0-2 °C, relative humidity less than 50%, tightly packed, integrated transport. Packed leaves should be stored in a dry, low-ventilated room. Such as cold storage requirements: temperature 0-2 °C, relative humidity less than 50%, and often ventilation. The pile height is less than 2.5 meters, and it should be turned and checked frequently, and at the same time, it should be taken care of against black mites.