Chickens and chaiji are also known as stupid chickens, which have characteristics of resistance to roughage, strong nesting and strong resistance to disease. The meat is delicious. Chai eggs are very popular in urban and rural markets, and egg prices are also higher than ordinary eggs. For farmers with certain conditions, the cost of raising chickens is relatively low, which is suitable for family farming. The full set of techniques for farm chicken breeding is now described as follows:
First, feeding and management during brooding
1. Preparation before hatching Thoroughly sterilize the chicken house. All the equipment in the house should be overhauled. The temperature of the chicken house should rise to 33Â°C and the relative humidity should not be lower than 60% before entering the chicks. The light was set for 23 hours of light and 1 hour for darkness. Keep the water fountain in the light for chicks to find.
2. Pick young and choose healthy and lively, struggle strenuously, call out crisply, receive good umbilicals, clean feathers, and good uniformity of the seedlings. After accessing the chicken house, chicks should provide drinking water (not less than 35Â°C) and feed as soon as possible to ensure that each chick can drink water and feed normally. Manual assistance can be provided for chicks that do not drink water. The chicks are prohibited from cleaning the ground within 15 days of the chicks being housed.
Second, rearing and management of the breeding period
1. Stocking site construction
1 After the fence nets have been established, nylon mesh shall be used to form a closed fence with a height of 1.5 meters. Chickens can freely feed in the pens. The fence area is determined according to the number of breeding, and each chicken generally covers an area of â€‹â€‹8 square meters.
2 The building of the chicken house should be constructed in a place with high relief, dryness, and good drainage. It should be built at a distance of more than 500 meters from the road. It is also possible to build a chicken house in the woods or on the edge of the forest. The sheds can be made of plastic greenhouses, with a width of 6 meters and a length determined by the number of chickens. There is no drip film on the inner layer of the greenhouse. A layer of straw is used for thermal insulation and covered with plastic film on the straw. And fixed with a rope. The lower edges of both sides of the longitudinal axis of the plastic greenhouse can be rolled up or down to adjust the indoor temperature and ventilation. The floor of the shed can be filled with fine sand to make the room dry, raising 6-8 chickens per square meter. At the same time, multi-layered production nests and perches are set up, and the size of the egg nest is suitable to accommodate 2 chickens.
2. Feeding management points
Breeding period refers to the (31-240 days old) chicks bred to the hen after brooding temperature, cock market, is a critical period of chicken growth and development, pay attention to the following feeding and management techniques.
1 The stocking season selection should try to arrange the chicks to destock after the temperature has dropped below 10Â°C during the day.
2 Stocking, training, and training To return the chicken to the hatchery on time, it is convenient for feeding. When the deheated chaiji is returned in the morning or at night, it can be used regularly for knocking and whistling to train and tune. It's best to get two people together. One person blew a whistle in front to open the way and sprinkle the feed to let the chickens follow the looting; the other was driven by bamboo rafts at the back until they were all in the feeding area. In order to enhance the effect, the feed tanks and water tanks are set in the stocking area at noon every day in the first few days of the start, and a small amount of full-priced feed and fresh water are added to whistling and priming once. At the same time, the breeder should promptly expel the early returning chickens. In the evening, use the same method for regression. After repeated training for a few days, the flock can establish conditioned reflexes.
3 Provide sufficient drinking water Place some drinking utensils within the range of chicken activities. For example, prepare porcelain pot water for every 50 chickens. At the same time avoid the chickens from drinking unclean water.
4 regular feeding supplement time should be fixed, can not be arbitrarily changed. Summer and autumn can make up less, spring and winter can make up some; 30-60 days of daily supplement fine material about 25 grams, daily supplement 1 - 2 times. The reference formulas were: corn 61%, soybean meal 15%, peanut kernel cake 6%, bran 7%, fine bran 5%, fishmeal 3%, bone meal 1.7%, vegetable oil 1%, salt 0.3%. After 8 weeks of age, it is necessary to increase the energy concentration of the feed and the amount of feed, but it is also necessary to increase the amount of fat, but it is not allowed to add rich fat such as butter and sheep oil. The amount of fat added is 3%-5%. The amount of daily supplement is 3 to 4 months old, 30 to 35 grams, 5 to 6 months old 40 to 45 grams, 7 to 8 months old 50 to 55 grams, 2 daily supplements, 1 morning and evening. Times.
5 Fermented larvae were used in grazing land and were sterilized with pigs fermented and sterilized, chicken manure plus 20% of loam and 3% bran. On the brickwork floor, cover it with grass and keep it moist for about 20 days. Each day, a portion of the fermentation material is turned over for chicken consumption, which can save 30% of feed.
6 Supplementary illumination The natural light in the winter and spring seasons is short and artificial light must be applied. 5 watts per square meter is appropriate, from 10 pm to 10 pm, from 6 am to dawn. Can not suddenly fill light for a long time, daily light increase by half an hour, and gradually transition to 10 pm. If natural light exceeds 11 hours per day, no light may be added. After turning off the lights at night, there should be some lights that are not strong enough to illuminate the lights so that chickens can walk and drink. When there are more insects in summer, you can hang some purple or incandescent lamps in the habitat.
7 Prevention of animal pests and phytotoxicity Measures should be taken to prevent predators, such as the weasel and the eagle, from catching chicken. If you farm chickens in orchards, use biological pesticides when spraying pesticides.
8 Regular epidemic prevention and insecticide prevention according to chicken disease epidemic prevention program, 30 days old chicken Newcastle disease i series freeze-dried seedlings, nasal drops or 1.5 eye drops, chickenpox subcutaneously stabbed double needles; 40 days old bird flu oil seedling stem back subcutaneous injection 0.4 ml 50-day-old freeze-dried seedlings with laryngotracheitis, 1 eye; 60-day-old Newcastle disease i-lyophilized seedlings 1 injection; 90-day-old laryngotracheitis freeze-dried seedlings 1 eye; 110 days old chickenpox Two needles were lyophilized and seedlings were subcutaneously injected with 0.6 ml intramuscularly for Newcastle disease oil, 4 for Newcastle disease iv, and 0.6 ml for 120 days old bird flu vaccine. Use drugs regularly for deworming.
9 Careful management and management of the breeding period is to achieve "five diligence." One is to observe when you put a chicken. Healthy chickens always scramble and flee outwards, and sick chickens are slow or unwilling to leave. The second is to observe when cleaning. When cleaning the chicken house and cleaning the manure, observe whether the manure is normal. The third is to observe the feeding time. When feeding, observe the mental state of the chicken. Healthy chickens often look impatient, and sick chickens do not eat or are unresponsive. Fourth, observe when breathing. After the lights are turned off at night, listen to the chicken's breathing is normal. If there is a "grilling" sound, then the respiratory tract is ill. The fifth is to observe when eating. From stocking to production, feed intake gradually increased to normal. If diseased chickens are found, they should be promptly treated and isolated.
Third, the egg production management
When a hen has a body weight of 1.3 kg to 1.5 kg, the ratio of male to female is 1:25. Feeding management is to allow the chickens to feed freely in the stocking area during the day, supplement each time in the morning and in the evening, and the daily feed supply should be 50g to 55g, and it should be done during the whole laying period (241-600 days). To the following points.
1. The nutrient concentration feed in the laying period should be mainly concentrated, and the green and succulent feed should be supplemented properly. The nutrient concentration of the concentrate, crude protein content is 15%-16%, calcium is 3.5%, phosphorus is 0.33%, salt 0.37%. To strengthen the management of transitional period of chickens, there is a transitional period from the breeding period to the feeding of the laying period. When the egg production rate is 5%, the feeding of layering materials is started. The general transition period is 6 days, in the concentrates. Change 1/3 every 2 days, and finally completely become egg yolk material.
2. Increase the light time is generally implemented in the morning and evening fill light twice, fixed in the morning at 6 o'clock to start to dawn, 6:30 in the evening to start to 10 o'clock, all day light for more than 16 hours, 2 - 3 months after laying , The daily light time is adjusted to 17 hours, the morning fill light from 5 o'clock, the same evening, fill the light at the same time, fill light once fixed, do not easily change.
3. Early egg production raises the weight of eggs. After 2 months of egg production, the egg weight basically reached the normal standard, with an average of 24 eggs weighing 1 kg. Undernutrition will affect the weight of the eggs. Second, look at the egg shape. Firewood egg shape is complete. If the big end of the egg is small, it is due to lack of early food and sufficient supplements should be added. Third, look at the rising rate of egg production. The egg production rate reaches 60% after the latest 3 months; if the egg production rate fluctuates greatly, it is necessary to look for reasons from the feeding and management. Four to see chicken weight. After a period of egg production, if the weight of the chicken remains unchanged, the management is appropriate; if the chicken is too fat or too thin, the feeding amount should be adjusted. Five to see appetite. When the chickens are fed, the chickens quickly gather and fight for food, and they can feed more properly; if they come slowly, they cannot be fed together and should be fed less.
4. Prevention of hens in the dark environment and nesting eggs do not take, can induce hens nesting, so the number of eggs should be increased, so that eggs do not stay in the egg nest overnight. Once found, the nested chicken should change its environment in a timely manner, place it in a cool and bright place, and feed more green and juicy feed. The chicken will soon leave the nest.
5. Strict anti-epidemic disinfection Chickens that grow in stocking environments are vulnerable to external diseases, so epidemic prevention and disinfection must be in place. First, under the guidance of veterinarians, strict prevention and control of chicken epidemic disease prevention procedures. Second, we must do a good job of sanitation. Set up disinfection zones or disinfection pools on the importation and exportation sites and refuse to visit them. The third is to achieve "all in and out." After the batch of chickens have been stocked, the chicken sheds shall be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected, and the used utensils, pots and troughs shall be fumigated once and then fed to the next batch of chickens.
6. When the weather is bad or the weather is not good, the chickens should be promptly rushed back to the shed for feeding, not to stock up in the mountains, and to avoid loss caused by death and injury.
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