Early chestnut comprehensive production technology

Chestnut is one of the major dried fruit species in China. It is nutritious and popular with consumers. In recent years, mountain fruit growers have gained considerable economic benefits by planting chestnut trees. This article describes several early high-yielding cultivation techniques of chestnut. First, grafting technology chestnut seedlings have the results of late, low yield, serious phenomenon in size, large variability and other shortcomings; after grafting can not only maintain the maternal good traits, early results, but also can enhance chestnut resistance. specific method. 1. Cultivate good rootstocks: First, select the varieties that are adapted to local site conditions, and select the full, non-disease-infested and fully matured nuts for seeding. Seedlings are sowed in spring and cultivated into rootstock seedlings. 2. Excellent selection of scion: The selection scab has good traits, and the good quality scion is taken as the scion. After the defoliation, the growth is enriched and the xylem is fully matured 30 days before the germination. The top buds are full of development branches or the resulting branches are scioned. Sand storage. 3. Grafting: Grafting is carried out from mid-March to mid-April, using the traditional skin grafting tongues, subcutaneous abdomen joints, or ankle joints. 4. Management after grafting: Check graft survival after 10 to 15 days. For survival of the seedlings after the tissue is completely healed, the dressing is removed and the shoots are picked up when the shoots reach 40 cm in length, and are planted in the spring or in the second year of spring; the shoots that are not survived can be patched before the end of August. Second, dense planting and cultivation techniques, reasonable and dense planting can not only increase early production, obtain economic benefits as soon as possible, but also facilitate the intensive management of orchards. Planting density: The plant spacing is generally 2mX4m, 3mx 4m or 3mx5m, and the specific density depends on the characteristics of the rootstock, scion characteristics or site conditions. The investment in the park can be recovered within 6 years after planting. Cultivation method: The mountain can dig a fish scale pit or level ditch according to the contour line, as a planting hole (ditch); The ground ditch is divided by the line spacing, the depth and width are each 1m, the bottom layer is filled with a mixture of topsoil and organic fertilizer, about 7 - 80% full, and the remaining space is used for storing rain and snow. After weathering and maturity, seedlings are planted in the fall or spring of the second year. Third, soil and fertilizer water management technology Chestnut is a deep-rooted plant, drought tolerance and strong resistance to thin, generally only when planting in the planting hole pouring enough water to be survived after the need to re-watering. Chestnut trees are topdressed 2-3 times during the growing season on the basis of autumn basal fertilization. The quantity of autumn basal fertilizer is: 100 kg organic fertilizer per plant and a small amount of chemical fertilizer. Method: The whole garden can be applied in conjunction with orchard deep turning (in the case of fertilizer is sufficient), and radial fertilization can also be carried out in the annular groove. Topdressing can be carried out before sprouting, during flowering, and during rapid fruit growth. Method: Can be applied by ditching or acupuncture. The amount of each plant is 0.5--0.6kg of urea or compound fertilizer, or 0.3% urea solution is sprayed on the foliar. 0.1%-0.2% boron fertilizer solution at flowering stage can increase fruit setting rate. 8% to 10%. Fourth, the pruning technique The saplings are mainly tree-cultivated, and they must master the principle of “should not be light, less sparse, and winter pruning” to accelerate the expansion of the canopy, increase the effective branch, and achieve early results. . Generally sparse the inner branch through the dense branches, leggy branches, thin branches, fortress to stay strong branches, in order to cultivate bone stems, branches or the results of the mother branch, and adjust the angle and proportion of the above types of branches. For individual too long shoots should also be appropriately short cut to facilitate plastic surgery and promote effective branching. The extension branches of its backbone branches can be released slowly for two years. After entering the result period, it is necessary to maintain a strong tree vigor and extend the K-result period (especially the full fruit period), mainly using the retraction of the top branch; thinning weak branches, crossing branches, overlapping branches; Branches, etc., in order to focus on effective nutrition, maintain a strong tree vigor, and pay attention to the retention of the internal branch to cultivate the resulting mother branch, to achieve a three-dimensional crown results, in order to achieve the purpose of high yield and stable production. For the overgrowth of the result tree, should be appropriate to stay more branches, less short cut, in order to disperse the tree nutrients, ease growth potential, increase the results of the mother and the results of the branches, with fruit pressure crown. For the strong results, the mother branches should be lightly cut, less shrunk and released, and 3 to 5 branches can be kept on each 2 noon branches; the results of the golden mean branches will not produce new results after the results of the year. Branches should be sparsely cut; for mothers with poor fruit setting ability and aging, they should be sheared or retracted in time to promote new shoots and cultivate the resulting mother shoots. For the treatment of the resulting branches, the projected area per square meter of the crown can retain about 13-15 result branches before the canopy is connected; after the canopy is connected, about 9-12 result branches can be retained, and the branch distance is 30- 40cm or so. V. Pest Control Techniques 1. Tillage of soil in early spring can eliminate a variety of soil overwintering larvae, such as chestnuts and lopsided larvae. 2. Combine scraping bark and coat with dichlorvos kerosene solution (1 to 1.5kg kerosene plus 80% dichlorvos 50g), or 40% dimethoate emulsion 10 times, 50% monocrotophos emulsion 20 times to dry, can eliminate trunk wintering Insect pests, such as chestnuts, wingworms, chestnut leafhoppers, etc., are better coated with a plastic film after being dried. 3. In late April to early May, the insects on new shoots and leaves should be cut off in a timely manner and destroyed in a concentrated manner. This can reduce the population density of the chestnut beetle and effectively prevent the damage of the chestnut beet. 4, from late May to September according to the occurrence, can be used 2.5% deltamethrin 6000 times, or 75% of phoxim 1000-2000 times, or 90% of trichlorfon 800-1000 times, or 50% 3000 times of monocrotophos, spraying the crown 2- or 4 times, can kill a large number of adult pests.