The Main Reasons and Preventive Measures of Corn Empty Stalk

In the past two years, in order to reform the farming system according to local conditions, optimize the internal structure of food crop production, and promote the development of the feed industry, animal husbandry and aquaculture, the area of ​​corn has been expanded, but the yield is relatively low. The average yield per 1hm2 is only 1875kg for the intercropping and the net seed expansion is only 3750kg, which is a far cry from the expansion of more than 6000kg. According to the survey, one of the main factors affecting the increase in the yield per unit area of ​​corn in our region is that corn often produces empty stalks in the production, and its empty stalk rate is generally 15% to 20%, and the seriousness is as high as 30% or more. According to the author's practice, the main reasons for the empty stalk of corn and its control measures are described below. 1 Main reasons 1.1 Tassel suppression on the ear of the ear The ear of the corn is developed from the apical bud, and the growth potential is strong. The tassel differentiation is 7-10 days earlier than the female ear, and the ear is developed from the axillary bud. Late, the growth potential is weak, when the external conditions are not suitable, tassels will have a significant inhibitory effect on the ear. When malnutrition occurs, tassels use the top growth advantage to absorb large amounts of nutrients to the top, resulting in the formation of empty stalks due to poor development of the female ear due to insufficient nutrition. 1.2 Nutritional scrutiny If corn lacks nutrients in the ear differentiation stage, the photosynthetic area is small, and organic matter accumulation is small, it will lead to poor female ear development and increase the empty stalk rate. However, during the prosperous period of corn, if the supply of mineral nutrients is excessive, the nutrient growth will be vigorous, and the reproductive growth of life and death will be weakened, so that less organic matter will be distributed to the female, and empty stalks will also be formed. 1.3 Unreasonable fertilization Under the same density fertility conditions, the fertilization with less fertilization has more empty culm rate than the fertilization; the lower the fertility, the greater the density, the higher the empty culm rate; and the single fertilizer is more than the empty stalk of the formula fertilizer. With high rates, the application of binary fertilizers is higher than that of Sanyuan fertilizers. 1.4 The high-temperature drought is the largest period for maize before heading. If drought is absent during this period, it will affect the normal flowering of tassels and the extraction of female filaments, causing premature seizures and delayed silking. In this case, the pollen's vitality is weak, and the Bush filaments are easy to wither, which results in inability to pollinate and inseminate and empty culms. 1.5 Too much rainy weather In the period of corn tasseling, if there is insufficient rain and light, the pollen grains easily swell and break down to death or bind into clusters, losing the ability to pollinate, making the female filaments unable to fertilize in time, resulting in spikes. Seedless. 2 Preventive measures 2.1 Impairing the apical dominance The emasculation technique used in corn production can effectively reduce its apical dominance to reduce the suppression of tassels on the ear. Therefore, adjusting the rational distribution of nutrients can effectively reduce the emptying rate. According to the test, the emptying rate of the emasculated field is less than 1%, and the emptying rate of the emasculated field is more than 3%. The method of detasseling is: When the tassels are exposed, the intercalary or septum pulls out the tassel and should not damage the functional leaves. After his dearth, there were only half of tassels in the whole field. After the pollination is over, the remaining half of the tassels are removed again to reduce nutrient consumption and increase grain weight. 2.2 The density of the normal varieties for every 1hm2 planting is 42500-60000, the planting pattern is 70cm spacing and the plant spacing is 27cm; the compact varieties of standing leaves are about 75000 plants per 1hm2, spacing is 80cm, the plant spacing is 17cm. The increased row spacing is conducive to ventilation and light transmission, increases the photosynthetic capacity, increases the nutrition of the ear, promotes the differentiation of the ear, and reduces the rate of empty culms. 2.3 The application of leaf age fertilization corn from the jointing to the ear silking fertilization to the booting stage, is the most vigorous growth and development period, adequate nutrient supply during this period, can reduce the empty stalk rate. The specific principle of fertilizing according to leaf age is: when the leaf age index reaches 30%, that is, when the 5 leaves are unfolded, the organic fertilizer applied to all organic fertilizers will be topdressed with phosphorus and potash fertilizers; the leaf age index will reach 30% to 35%, ie 5 to 6 leaf expansions. At the time, topdressing amount accounted for 60% of the total amount of nitrogen fertilizer; leaf age index reached 60%~70%, that is, when 12~13 leaves were unfolded, 40% of the remaining nitrogen fertilizer was recovered. 2.4 Male flowering water Male cornflowers are sensitive to water 15 days before tasselling. In this case, if the soil is dry, timely watering can promote the development of the ear, shorten the interval between male and female flowers, facilitate normal pollination and fertilization, and reduce the empty culm rate. According to research, tasseling period Water consumption per 1hm2 is 75m3. If the soil moisture content is less than 80% of the maximum water capacity in the field, it should be watered immediately. 2.5 Artificially assisted pollination During the silking of corn, when the dew is dry on a sunny day, the male flower is shaken with a bamboo rod or pull string for 1 to 2 times for 2 to 3 times, which is conducive to pollen scattering, increasing pollination opportunities, increasing the seed setting rate and reducing baldness. .

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